skip navigation

PUBLICATIONS

Register for Latest Research

Stay Informed
Register with NCJRS to receive NCJRS's biweekly e-newsletter JUSTINFO and additional periodic emails from NCJRS and the NCJRS federal sponsors that highlight the latest research published or sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs.

NCJRS Abstract

The document referenced below is part of the NCJRS Virtual Library collection. To conduct further searches of the collection, visit the Virtual Library. See the Obtain Documents page for direction on how to access resources online, via mail, through interlibrary loans, or in a local library.

 

NCJ Number: 66763 Find in a Library
Title: PUNISHMENT AND DETERRENCE - A PSYCHOBIOLOGICAL STATEMENT (FROM BIOLOGY AND CRIME, P 100-121, 1979, BY C R JEFFERY - SEE NCJ-71010)
Author(s): C R JEFFERY
Date Published: 1979
Page Count: 22
Format: Document
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: A THEORY OF BEHAVIOR MUST BE ESTABLISHED BEFORE DETERRENCE AND PUNISHMENT CAN BE STUDIED. THE THEORY MUST BE ESSENTIALLY DIFFERENT FROM PAST PSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIOLOGICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL THEORIES.
Abstract: WITHIN THE PSYCHOBIOLOGY OF PUNISHMENT AND DETERRENCE, THE ORGANISM IS A CRITICAL VARIABLE. EACH INDIVIDUAL IS DIFFERENT IN BRAIN STRUCTURE, PAST EXPERIENCE, GENETIC INHERITANCE, AND PRESENT ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS. PUNISHMENT MAY WORK TO DETER, BUT ONLY UNDER SPECIFIC CONDITIONS FOR A PARTICULAR INDIVIDUAL. THE IMPACT OF A PAINFUL STIMULUS ON A MALE WILL DEPEND ON HIS TESTOSTERONE LEVEL, AMONG OTHER FACTORS. THE IMPACT OF STIMULATION ON A FEMALE WILL DIFFER DEPENDING ON THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE. A PERSON WHO HAS EXPERIENCED PAIN AND FRUSTRATION ALL HIS LIFE WILL BEHAVE DIFFERENTLY FROM ONE WHO HAS NOT. THE IMPACT OF A STIMULUS ON A RESPONSE DEPENDS ON (1) THE PAST GENETIC HISTORY OF THE INDIVIDUAL UNDER STUDY, (2) THE PAST CONDITIONING OF THE INDIVIDUAL, (3) THE PRESENT STATE OF INTERACTION OF ORGANISM AND ENVIRONMENT, AND (4) THE FUTURE CONTIGENCIES ATTACHED TO RESPONSE PATTERNS. PUNISHMENT AND DETERRENCE CAN ONLY BE UNDERSTOOD WITH AN INTERDISCIPLINARY THEORY OF BEHAVIOR BASED ON BIOLOGY, PSYCHOLOGY, AND SOCIOLOGY, WITH MAJOR COMPONENTS INVOLVING BEHAVIORAL GENETICS AND PSYCHOBIOLOGY. HENCE, A THEORY OF LEARNING IS NEEDED, SINCE BEHAVIOR IS LEARNED. DETERRENCE THEORY ATTEMPTS TO EXPLAIN HOW INDIVIDUALS LEARN TO AVOID CERTAIN STIMULI. LEARNING IS A BIOCHEMICAL CODE IN THE BRAIN; THUS A PERSON IS DETERRED IF THE PROPER CODE IS IN HIS BRAIN. THE EFFECT OF PUNISHMENT ON AN ORGANISM IS THEN A MOST COMPLEX BIOSOCIAL PROCESS. RESEARCHERS MUST MOVE BEYOND PERCEPTION AND SURVEY DATA AND VERBAL REPORTS AS MEASUREMENTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ON BEHAVIOR AND DEVELOP THE CAPABILITY FOR TRACING A PAINFUL STIMULUS INTO THE ORGANISM TO THE ASSOCIATIONAL AND MOTIVATIONAL AREAS OF THE BRAIN AND THEN TO THE MOTOR CENTERS AND TO BEHAVIOR. FORTY-EIGHT REFERENCES ARE SUPPLIED. (AUTHOR ABSTRACT MODIFIED--MHP)
Index Term(s): Biological influences; Crime Causes; Cultural influences; Deterrence; Social conditions
To cite this abstract, use the following link:
http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=66763

*A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's website is provided. Tell us how you use the NCJRS Library and Abstracts Database - send us your feedback.