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NCJ Number: 67346 Find in a Library
Title: CORRECTIONS SYSTEM IN JAPAN
Author(s): D BINDZUS; A ISHII
Date Published: 1977
Page Count: 198
Type: Historical Overview
Format: Document
Language: German
Country: West Germany (Former)
Annotation: THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE JAPANESE CORRECTIONS SYSTEM, THE SYSTEM'S LEGAL BASIS AND ORGANIZATION, AND ITS EFFECTIVENESS ARE DESCRIBED.
Abstract: EARLY FORMS OF IMPRISONMENT IN JAPAN DATE BACK AS FAR AS 167 B.C., BUT MODERN FORMS OF IMPRISONMENT WERE ESTABLISHED IN THE EDO PERIOD (1603 TO 1867). EVEN IN THE 1970'S, SECURITY AND DISCIPLINE ARE EMPHASIZED IN CORRECTIONS INSTITUTIONS, AND LIBERALIZATION MEASURES SUCH AS WORK RELEASE PROGRAMS HAVE NOT BEEN TRIED. AT THE SAME TIME, SINCE THE SECOND WORLD WAR, TWO ALL-TIME CRIME PEAKS HAVE BEEN REACHED (1948 AND 1970). THE MODERN JAPANESE CORRECTIONS SYSTEM, WHICH WAS FOUNDED IN A 1908 LAW, IS ADMINISTERED BY A CENTRAL CORRECTIONS BUREAU WITHIN THE MINISTRY OF JUSTICE; THE CORRECTIONS AND REHABILITATION COUNCIL SERVES AS THE ADVISORY BODY TO THE JUSTICE MINISTER IN CORRECTIONS MATTERS. ALL CORRECTIONS FACILITIES ARE ORGANIZED IN THE SAME MANNER, AND CORRECTIONS PERSONNEL ARE ORGANIZED HIERARCHICALLY. THE GOAL OF CORRECTIONS INSTITUTIONS IS, OFFICIALLY, DETERMENT, ALTHOUGH PREVENTIVE MEASURES ARE GROWING IN IMPORTANCE. LITTLE EMPHASIS HAS BEEN PLACED ON INMATES' RIGHTS, AND INMATES' DAILY ROUTINE IS STRICT AND DEMANDING. EFFORTS TO REINTEGRATE PRISONERS INCLUDE PRISONER CLASSIFICATION, IMPRISONMENT STAGES THAT LEAD TO FREEDOM, WORK, VOCATIONAL TRAINING, LEISURE ACTIVITIES, AND SPECIAL PSYCHOTHERAPEUTIC MEASURES DESIGNED FOR THE JAPANESE MENTALITY. ALTHOUGH PREPARATIONS FOR OFFENDERS' RELEASE ARE BEGUN AT THE OUTSET OF IMPRISONMENT AND A 10-DAY REORIENTATION PERIOD IS PROVIDED JUST BEFORE RELEASE, NO SOCIAL WORKER ASSISTANCE WITH POSTRELEASE PROBLEMS IS AVAILABLE, AND REHABILITATION ASSISTANCE IS MINIMAL. IN GENERAL, IMPRISONMENT IS A SANCTION DESIGNED TO FORCE CITIZENS' ADHERENCE TO SOCIAL NORMS. RECIDIVISM RATES ARE MUCH LOWER IN JAPAN THAN IN WEST GERMANY AND ARE CONTINUING TO DROP. REFORM PROPOSALS DO NOT CALL FOR ANY OF THE SOCIAL THERAPEUTIC MEASURES SO POPULAR IN WESTERN CULTURES. AN EXTENSIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY, COPIOUS NOTES, AND AN APPENDIX CONTAINING TEXTS OF ALL LAWS RELATING TO THE CORRECTIONS SYSTEM AS WELL AS STATISTICAL TABLES ON PENITENTIARIES ARE SUPPLIED. --IN GERMAN. (KMD)
Index Term(s): Correctional facilities; Correctional reform; Corrections management; Corrections statistics; Germany; Inmates; Japan; Laws and Statutes; Pleas; Recidivism
Note: JAPANISCHES RECHT (SERIES), N 2
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http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=67346

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