skip navigation

PUBLICATIONS

Register for Latest Research

Stay Informed
Register with NCJRS to receive NCJRS's biweekly e-newsletter JUSTINFO and additional periodic emails from NCJRS and the NCJRS federal sponsors that highlight the latest research published or sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs.

NCJRS Abstract

The document referenced below is part of the NCJRS Virtual Library collection. To conduct further searches of the collection, visit the Virtual Library. See the Obtain Documents page for direction on how to access resources online, via mail, through interlibrary loans, or in a local library.

 

NCJ Number: 68189 Find in a Library
Title: EVOLUTION OF PENALTIES
Journal: CUARDERNOS PANAMENOS DE CRIMINOLOGIA  Volume:1  Issue:2  Dated:(NOVEMBER 1973)  Pages:96-108
Author(s): R RANGEL
Date Published: 1973
Page Count: 15
Format: Article
Language: Spanish
Country: Panama
Annotation: THE EVOLUTION OF PENAL SANCTIONS AGAINST OFFENDERS IS ANALYZED IN AN HISTORICAL CONTEXT, AND CONTEMPORARY ALTERNATIVES TO INSTITUTIONALIZATION ARE PRAISED AS THE CULMINATION OF AN INCREASINGLY HUMANE PENAL PHILOSOPHY.
Abstract: IMPRISONMENT AS A PENAL SANCTION WAS PRACTICALLY UNKNOWN UNTIL THE 18TH CENTURY, WHEN TWO ENLIGHTENED PENOLOGISTS, CESAR BECCARIA AND JOHN HOWARD, CHAMPIONED THE DETENTION OF CRIMINAL OFFENDERS VERSUS THE HITHERTO APPLIED INHUMANE FORMS OF CORPORAL PUNISHMENT AND DEATH BY EXECUTION. ALTHOUGH IMPRISONMENT WAS AN IMPROVEMENT ON PREVIOUS PENAL POLICIES, IT IS NOW SLOWLY BEING REPLACED BY MORE PROGRESSIVE, ECONOMICAL, AND EFFECTIVE ALTERNATIVE SANCTIONS. THIS PAPER DESCRIBES THE NEW TYPES OF CORRECTIONS, GIVING DETAILED LEGAL DEFINITIONS OF EACH. THEY INCLUDE PROBATION, PAROLE, OPEN PRISONS, AND COMMUNITY-BASED PROGRAMS. THE ADVANTAGES TO SOCIETY AND TO THE OFFENDERS TREATED UNDER THESE VARIOUS TYPES OF NONCUSTODIAL CORRECTIONS ARE DESCRIBED FROM THE VIEWPOINTS OF SOCIETY, THE PROBATIONER (OR PAROLEE), AND THE PROBATION AND/OR PAROLE OFFICER, WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON PUBLIC FUND SAVINGS AND EFFECTIVENESS, MAINTENANCE OF OFFENDERS' TIES WITH FAMILY AND COMMUNITY, AND MAXIMIZED CHANCES OF REHABILITATION AND SOCIAL REINTEGRATION. THE STUDY ENDS WITH EXPRESSIONS OF REGRET FOR THE ABSENCE OF ANY TYPE OF PROGRESSIVE PENOLOGICAL TREATMENT EXTENDED TO OFFENDERS IN PANAMA. TABULAR DATA ARE APPENDED.--IN SPANISH.
Index Term(s): Alternatives to institutionalization; Community-based corrections (adult); Custody vs treatment conflict; Open prisons; Panama; Parole; Probation; Supervised liberty
Note: *This document is currently unavailable from NCJRS.
To cite this abstract, use the following link:
http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=68189

*A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's website is provided. Tell us how you use the NCJRS Library and Abstracts Database - send us your feedback.