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NCJ Number: 68237 Find in a Library
Title: CRIMINOLOGY AND URBAN PLANNING
Journal: ILANUD AL DIA  Volume:2  Issue:6  Dated:(DECEMBER 1979)  Pages:33-39
Author(s): J R MINNERY
Date Published: 1979
Page Count: 7
Format: Article
Language: Spanish
Country: Costa Rica
Annotation: NEW CONCEPTS IN URBAN PLANNING TO MEET SOCIAL OBJECTIVES IN ADDITION TO IMPROVING THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT ARE EXPLORED FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF AN AUSTRALIAN CRIMINOLOGIST BUT HAVE WORLDWIDE APPLICATION.
Abstract: URBAN PLANNING HAS BEEN THE PROVINCE OF ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS WHOSE CONCERNS ARE PURELY PHYSICAL IN NATURE. EMPHASIS HAS BEEN PLACED ON MEANS (E.G., BUILDINGS, LANDSCAPING) RATHER THAN ON ENDS (E.G., QUALITY OF COMMUNITY AND INDIVIDUAL LIFE). THE CRIMINOGENIC INFLUENCES OF CERTAIN TYPES OF SURROUNDINGS HAVE BEEN IGNORED BY URBAN PLANNERS. YET IS IS WELL KNOWN TO SOCIOLOGISTS AND CRIMINOLOGISTS THAT THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT CAN BE EITHER CRIMINOGENIC OR ELEVATING. PREVAILING COMMUNITY VALUES AND STATUS QUO, ENFORCED BY BOTH CAPITALIST AND SOCIALIST REGIMES, HAVE BEEN REFLECTED IN URBAN PLANNING. HOUSING PATTERNS EVEYRWHERE PERPETUATE EXISTING SOCIAL STRATIFICATION. URBANIZATION OF RURAL AND INDIGENOUS POPULATIONS IS PRODUCING INCREASING ALIENATION AND IS BREEDING CRIME, BUT THE VALUES OF URBAN PLANNERS HAVE SO FAR BEEN SHAPED BY THEIR SOCIAL STATUS AND CLASS VALUES. INNOVATIVE URBAN PLANNING WITH THE AVOWED PURPOSE OF ELIMINATING GHETTOES AND/OR SLUMS CAN BE A SIGNIFICANT CRIME-REDUCING FACTOR. OTHER CONFLICTS AND OBSTACLES IN THE WAY OF ENLIGHTENED URBAN PLANNING ARE CAUSED BY THE DIVERGENT OBJECTIVES OF URBAN AND SUBURBAN AUTHORITIES. URBAN PLANNERS AND ARCHITECTS, LIKE THE REST OF MANKIND, OBEY OFTEN UNCONSCIOUS DRIVES TO PROTECT THEIR TERRITORITY. SUCH TERRITORIAL IMPERATIVE IS AT ODDS WITH INNOVATIVE CHANGES TOWARDS BREAKING UP EXISTING POCKETS OF POVERTY AND REDISTRIBUTING SLUM DWELLERS OVER A WIDER RANGE OF HOUSING OPTIONS THAT MIGHT ENCROACH UPON AFFLUENT NEIGHBORHOODS. YET MANY PROGRESSIVE URBAN PLANNERS, IN AUSTRALIA AND ELSEWHERE, ARE GUIDED BY ENLIGHTENED AND SOCIALLY PROGRESSIVE CONSIDERATIONS IN THEIR EFFORTS AT CREATING ENVIRONMENTS THAT WILL PREVENT CRIME INSTEAD OF BREEDING IT. FOUR REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED. --IN SPANISH.
Index Term(s): Australia; Environmental design; Overcrowding; Social conditions; Urban planning
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