skip navigation


Register for Latest Research

Stay Informed
Register with NCJRS to receive NCJRS's biweekly e-newsletter JUSTINFO and additional periodic emails from NCJRS and the NCJRS federal sponsors that highlight the latest research published or sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs.

NCJRS Abstract

The document referenced below is part of the NCJRS Virtual Library collection. To conduct further searches of the collection, visit the Virtual Library. See the Obtain Documents page for direction on how to access resources online, via mail, through interlibrary loans, or in a local library.


NCJ Number: 70376 Find in a Library
Title: Issues in the Application of Parole Guidelines to Females (From Female Offenders, P 289-307, 1980, by Curt T Griffiths and Margit Nance - See NCJ70360)
Author(s): C Alder; G Bazemore
Corporate Author: Simon Fraser University
Criminology Research Centre
Date Published: 1980
Page Count: 19
Sponsoring Agency: Simon Fraser University
Burnaby, BC, Canada V5A 1S6
Sale Source: Simon Fraser University
Criminology Research Centre
Burnaby, BC,
Type: Report (Study/Research)
Language: English
Country: Canada
Annotation: The issue of whether existing predictive parole decisionmaking guidelines validated for male offenders are valid for female offenders or whether a separate set of guidelines should be developed for women is examined.
Abstract: The predictive items used with the Federal parole guidelines have not yet been validated for their female subpopulation. While a host of studies have developed prediction items for male populations, very few have attempted to develop items for females. Currently, only two of the items now used in the Federal guidelines--number of prior incarcerations and history of drug dependency--have been clearly established to predict outcome for women parolees. Earlier work by Glaser and O'Leary (1966) highlights differences in postrelease violation rates of males and females within such categories as age at release, prior contact with agencies of the law, type of offense, and racial or national descent. For type of prior contacts, although the pattern of prediction is roughly the same, differences in the magnitude of violation rates for men and women are evident. In the case of the offense category, however, even the pattern of prediction is not consistent. Such variation in outcome for men and women within risk categories should warrant skepticism about using the same predictive or item weightings for male and female offenders. If it is the case that existing predictive items used in parole guidlines are not appropriate or valid for female inmates, ethical and legal issues would dictate the creation of separate guidelines for females; however, the body of research currently available cannot unequivocally refute the possibility of applying current guidelines to women as a subpopulation nor state with certainty that separate guidelines for women are required. Further cooperative research is needed. Tabular data, notes, and 13 references are provided. For related documents, see NCJ 70361-75 and 70377.
Index Term(s): Behavioral science research; Federal parole guidelines; Female inmates; Parole outcome prediction; Probation or parole decisionmaking
To cite this abstract, use the following link:

*A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's website is provided. Tell us how you use the NCJRS Library and Abstracts Database - send us your feedback.