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NCJRS Abstract

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NCJ Number: 72670 Find in a Library
Title: Classification of Crimes and Victims
Author(s): M R Gottfredson
Date Published: 1976
Page Count: 410
Sponsoring Agency: UMI Dissertation Services
Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346
Sale Source: UMI Dissertation Services
300 North Zeeb Road
P.O. Box 1346
Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346
United States of America
Type: Thesis/Dissertation
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: This research examines the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR)and victimization survceys to establish theories and methods for understanding physical injury and property loss in personal crime. An exposure model of criminal victimization is presented.
Abstract: The UCR system does not systematically collect and record data about loss and injury for each crime. However, a review of 8 National Crime Panel victimization surveys conducted by the Census Bureau in 1972 and 1973 found that the correlates of crimes which result in theft and those which result in injury to the victim differ significantly. The two analytical methods used in this research--the numerical taxonomy of victimization probabilities and the comparison of victim characteristics in specific offense classes to the distribution of characteristics in the general population--suggest an exposure model of criminal victimization. According to this victimization-opportunity model, certain situations exist in which the probability of personal victimization is high. These situations may be characterized by objective attributes, such as the time of day, number of persons around, and specific (usually public) places. Further, identifiable lifestyle differences of persons are directly related to the probability that they will be in high victimization-opportunity situations. These personal habits are also related to interpersonal associations. The exposure model suggests that, once controls for age, sex, and marital status are applied, persons with high involvement in conventional pursuits will have lower rates of personal crime than those not so involved. Persons are also expected to be victimized by offenders of the same age-sex group. In addition, the victimization-opportunity hypothesis suggests an inverse correlation between fear of crime and rates of personal victimization. Recommendations for UCR modifications include the addition of injury and loss information for each crime. Refinement of victim place and time variables and an examination of the validity of victim reports of offender characteristics are needed in future research. Data are needed not only on victims' reasons for not reporting crimes but also for reportimg them. Tabular data, chapter notes, and over 100 references are provided. Survey instruments and supplementary injury tables are appended.
Index Term(s): Burglary; Robbery; Situational theory; Victim crime precipitation; Victim identification; Victim-offender relationships; Victimization; Victimization surveys
Note: State University of New York at Albany - doctoral dissertation
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