skip navigation


Register for Latest Research

Stay Informed
Register with NCJRS to receive NCJRS's biweekly e-newsletter JUSTINFO and additional periodic emails from NCJRS and the NCJRS federal sponsors that highlight the latest research published or sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs.

NCJRS Abstract

The document referenced below is part of the NCJRS Virtual Library collection. To conduct further searches of the collection, visit the Virtual Library. See the Obtain Documents page for direction on how to access resources online, via mail, through interlibrary loans, or in a local library.


NCJ Number: 73986 Find in a Library
Title: Outcome Variables in Program Evaluation - Crime Control, Social Control, and Justice (From Handbook of Criminal Justice Evaluation, P 447-458, 1980, Malcolm W Klein and Katherine S Teilmann, ed. - See NCJ-73970)
Author(s): S Kobrin
Date Published: 1980
Page Count: 12
Sponsoring Agency: Sage Publications, Inc
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
Sale Source: Sage Publications, Inc
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320
United States of America
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: This essay argues that in selecting program outcome variables, evaluators often fail to distinguish between crime control and social control objectives of the criminal justice system.
Abstract: In this context, social control is interpreted to be identical with scrupulous adherence to the letter and the spirit of Anglo-American law, which imposes procedural constraints on the potential arbitrariness of arrest and conviction. The crime control model, which emphasizes maximum effectiveness at minimum cost, is increasingly favored by criminal justice practitioners and is demanded by the public. However, the author of this essay favors the scrupulous application of procedural versus substantive justice, even though the preservation of procedural justice may entail some sacrifice of substantive justice and may even impact negatively on crime control. Evaluators often find themselves obliged to accept the conviction of criminal justice agents that effectiveness in crime control is the most desirable outcome of criminal justice programs, even when it may involve some sacrifice of procedural justice. The crime control model concentrates too many powers into the hands of some unspecified justice system manager, in contrast to the due process model with its emphasis on the traditional American concepts of fairness and preservation of adversarial conduct of criminal justice. Methodological problems which arise in attempting to reconcile crime control and social control are already solved within the conceptual framework of the criminal law. Evaluators must consider both crime control and social control as appropriate outcome variables because they rank equally as expected system outputs of the criminal justice system. Six endnotes and 32 references are appended.
Index Term(s): Crime control model; Criminal justice system analysis; Evaluation criteria; Judicial process; Right to Due Process
To cite this abstract, use the following link:

*A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's website is provided. Tell us how you use the NCJRS Library and Abstracts Database - send us your feedback.