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NCJRS Abstract

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NCJ Number: 76413 Find in a Library
Title: Problem of Establishing the Sequence of Superimposed Lines Critical Review of Proposed Techniques, Part 1
Journal: International Criminal Police Review  Issue:342  Dated:(November 1980)  Pages:238-250
Corporate Author: Universite de Lausanne
Institut de Police Scientifique et de Criminologie
Date Published: 1980
Page Count: 13
Sponsoring Agency: Universite de Lausanne
1000 Lausanne 17, Switzerland
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: France
Annotation: The technique of establishing the chronological sequence of two crossing lines appearing in a document, a procedure often necessary for establishing fraud, is reviewed as developed at Lausanne University's Institute of Forensic Science and Criminology (Switzerland).
Abstract: The technique involves several steps: (1) an attempt to classify types of line intersections based on the type and nature of the lines themselves, (2) a study of the various types of line intersections, (3) the use of examination techniques that do not affect the document, and (4) the use of examination techniques which do affect the document. As much information as possible has been acquired about the structure and nature of lines produced by a movement of the writing instrument on the paper, as well as the structure and nature of lines produced without any movement of the instrument. The study of the dynamic aspects of the various kinds of intersection includes consideration of 'homogeneous intersections,' where the two lines are produced by the same instrument or by two identical instruments, and 'heterogeneous intersections,' where intersections are made with differing instruments. The following techniques for examining line intersections without damaging the document are described: (1) examination under the stereomicroscope, with the optical axis perpendicular to the paper's surface; (2) use of a cross-screen filter; (3) use of a special camera; (4) examinations under a stereomicroscope with its optical axis at an angle to the paper's surface or with curvature of the paper; (5) techniques using long or short ultraviolent or infrared incident lighting; and (6) 'pseudo low relief.' Photographic illustrations are provided.
Index Term(s): Document analysis; Forgery; Handwriting analysis; Typewriting analysis
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