skip navigation


Register for Latest Research

Stay Informed
Register with NCJRS to receive NCJRS's biweekly e-newsletter JUSTINFO and additional periodic emails from NCJRS and the NCJRS federal sponsors that highlight the latest research published or sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs.

NCJRS Abstract

The document referenced below is part of the NCJRS Virtual Library collection. To conduct further searches of the collection, visit the Virtual Library. See the Obtain Documents page for direction on how to access resources online, via mail, through interlibrary loans, or in a local library.


NCJ Number: 76531 Find in a Library
Title: Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design
Journal: Security Management  Volume:25  Issue:4  Dated:(April 1981)  Pages:36-38,40-42
Author(s): R A Gardner
Date Published: 1981
Page Count: 6
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) goals and concepts that are applicable to housing, businesses, industries, public buildings, schools, and recreation areas are described.
Abstract: CPTED calls for the creation of a defensive environment through the consideration of both physical and psychological aspects prior to construction. Opportunities for crime are reduced by employing design features that discourage crime while encouraging the legitimate use of the environment. To provide maximum control, an environment is first divided into smaller, clearly defined areas or zones which become the focal points for the application of CPTED elements. These zones are designated as public, semiprivate, or private and an effort is made to design each zone so that persons that use it feel a strong sense of territoriality that will encourage them to take control and defend it. The principal weapon in the protection of a defensible space is surveillance, since criminals are least likely to act when there is a high risk of their actions being witnessed. Open designs that minimize visual obstacles and eliminate places of concealment while encouraging the use of the environment are utilized. Special monitoring equipment is installed in places that are isolated or seldom used. Furthermore, lighting is installed in ways that enhance surveillance and reduce fear. Landscaping is also designed with surveillance in mind: Bushes are kept to a maximum of 3 feet in height, and the lower branches of trees are at least 6 feet off the ground. Finally, physical security measures aim at delaying penetration and thus reducing the probability that crime will occur. A reference list and addresses for obtaining further information are included. Illustrations are presented.
Index Term(s): Crime prevention measures; Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) programs; Environmental design; Facility security; Residential security; School security; Urban planning
To cite this abstract, use the following link:

*A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's website is provided. Tell us how you use the NCJRS Library and Abstracts Database - send us your feedback.