skip navigation


Register for Latest Research

Stay Informed
Register with NCJRS to receive NCJRS's biweekly e-newsletter JUSTINFO and additional periodic emails from NCJRS and the NCJRS federal sponsors that highlight the latest research published or sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs.

NCJRS Abstract

The document referenced below is part of the NCJRS Virtual Library collection. To conduct further searches of the collection, visit the Virtual Library. See the Obtain Documents page for direction on how to access resources online, via mail, through interlibrary loans, or in a local library.


NCJ Number: 76688 Add to Shopping cart Find in a Library
Title: National Evaluation Program - Phase I Assessment of Shoplifting and Employee Theft Programs - Summary Report
Author(s): L Bickman; D P Rosenbaum; T L Baumer; M R Kudel; C Christenholz; S L Knight; W T Perkowitz; M Everett; L SmithBickman L
Corporate Author: Westinghouse Evaluation Institute
United States of America
Project Director: L Bickman
Date Published: 1980
Page Count: 65
Sponsoring Agency: National Institute of Justice (NIJ)
Washington, DC 20531
National Institute of Justice/
Rockville, MD 20849
US Dept of Justice NIJ Pub
Washington, DC 20531
Westinghouse Evaluation Institute
Evanston, IL 60201
Contract Number: J-LEAA-022-78
Sale Source: National Institute of Justice/
NCJRS paper reproduction
Box 6000, Dept F
Rockville, MD 20849
United States of America
Type: Program/Project Description
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: Findings and recommendations are reported from a national evaluation of programs and strategies designed to combat shoplifting and employee theft.
Abstract: Data were collected from retail businesses, national and State retail associations, local community and business organizations, educational institutions, and components of the criminal justice system. From a pool of existing programs, a sample of 22 programs was chosen. Site visits and intense data collection efforts focused on these programs. Results indicated that the total direct cost of shoplifting is between $2 billion and $3 billion annually. From 2 percent to 10 percent of customers are estimated to steal. Losses from employee theft are estimated to be even greater than those from shoplifting. Some evidence indicates that as many as half of all retail employees steal at some time from their employers. Antitheft strategies may focus on identifying the potential offender; changing the environmental design through both physical and psychological barriers; and instituting retail auditing programs, staff training programs, and theft reporting programs. Other approaches include closed circuit television surveillance, electronic article surveillance, preemployment screening, education of the public, and use of the criminal justice system. Although shoplifting and employee theft are major problems, measurement of the problem is inadequate and the relative effectiveness of current strategies is unknown. Thus, accurate measures should be developed, further research should be conducted, and scientifically acceptable evaluations of antitheft strategies should be conducted. In addition, an interface between government and the retail community should be developed, and research and evaluation on the impact of use of the criminal justice system should be conducted. A flowchart and an appendix discussing measurement problems and issues are provided.
Index Term(s): Crime prevention measures; Crime specific countermeasures; Employee theft; Evaluation; National Evaluation Program; Program evaluation; Retail business crimes; Shoplifting
To cite this abstract, use the following link:

*A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's website is provided. Tell us how you use the NCJRS Library and Abstracts Database - send us your feedback.