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NCJRS Abstract

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NCJ Number: 76780 Find in a Library
Title: Corrections in Japan (From American Correctional Association Proceedings, P 95-102, 1981, Barbara Hadley Olsson and Ann Dargis, ed. - See NCJ-76771)
Author(s): A Nagashima
Date Published: 1981
Page Count: 8
Sponsoring Agency: American Correctional Assoc
Alexandria, VA 22314
Sale Source: American Correctional Assoc
206 N. Washington St., Suite 200
Alexandria, VA 22314
United States of America
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: Presented at the 110th Congress of Corrections of the American Correctional Association, this paper describes the Japanese correctional system, including the systems organization and structure, inmate characteristics, and future plans.
Abstract: With the exception of the prefecture police who are administered by National Police Headquarters, all Japanese criminal justice agencies are administered by the central government. Traditional prisons emphasize security, discipline, and work. Most inmates are sentenced under work requirement provisions; however, most of those inmates not required to work request employment assignments. Prison life is mainly centered around employment, a major rehabilitation factor. Work assignments are in private enterprises under the direction of company employees with whom inmate workers often develop close relationships. Noninstitutional treatment methods have also been used for many convicted offenders. Corrections institutions are generally under capacity, and the incidence of internal prison violence has been relatively low. Recidivism rates declined 50 percent between 1957 and 1974, then increased slightly in 1975. Problems confronting Japanese corrections include the following: (1) incarcerated population has increasingly become composed of offenders who are more difficult to treat successfully, such as serious offenders, drug abusers, syndicate members, and political activists; and (2) many experienced corrections officers and industries supervisors are nearing retirement. Innovations encompass such actions as making prison living conditions less harsh, developing more open institutions, creating cooperative arrangements between the corrections and rehabilitation bureaus, and using volunteers to facilitate ex-offenders' readjustment to the community. The Japanese prison code is currently under revision in order to modernize corrections practices, incorporate international treatment standards, and establish a statutory basis for corrections practices. Whether the revised law can be effectively integrated into traditional Japanese culture remains to be seen.
Index Term(s): Community-based corrections (adult); Correctional facilities; Corrections effectiveness; Ex-offender employment; Inmate Programs; Japan; Prosecution; Rehabilitation; Volunteers
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