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NCJ Number: 76819 Find in a Library
Title: Current Aspects of Penology
Journal: American Philosophical Society Proceedings  Volume:118  Issue:3  Dated:(June 7, 1974)  Pages:231-259
Author(s): Anonymous
Date Published: 1974
Page Count: 29
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: The journal contains articles that recommend new ways to control crime, such as decriminalization of some offenses and diversion of selected offenders from the penal system, in view of the failure of the treatment model in the United States and Europe.
Abstract: Discussions focus on the development of the rehabilitative (treatment) model in corrections. One article explains that in the United States, the model dates back to the 1870 conference of the National Prison Association, while in Western Europe, this model became popular after World War II. However, as all of the papers point out, the implementation of the treatment model has not resulted in lower crime rates. One paper suggests that the lack of lower crime rates is due to probation and parole supervision, which play an important role in the treatment model, but really provide intrusive restrictions on personal autonomy, thus alienating the offender. Also, the high cost of personnel and treatment facilities precludes implementation of some innovations. Perhaps, as one expert suggests, the penal system should not attempt to treat offenders in the first place, but rather be concerned with matters of guilt, human rights, and the concept of responsibility. This approach also allows for prisons to be humane institutions, which has been the aim of the treatment model. One paper recommends that large penitentiaries, spawned by the treatment model, should be replaced by cheaper and more effective strategies, such as decriminalization of some offenses, diversion of selected offenders from the penal system and their referral to social services, and deinstitutionalization (creation of small, locally based residential and nonresidential treatment services). The trend in Western Europe has been similar to that in the United States, according to the paper by a French expert. Sanctions which do not involve deprivation of liberty, which are in use in Eastern Europe, are being studied. All the experts agree that the research of different strategies has been inadequate, and should be continued with the use of modern technology. Findings from the research, and not the politics, should be basis for implementation of new measures. Articles include footnotes with references. For separate articles, see NCJ 76820-23.
Index Term(s): Alternatives to institutionalization; Community-based corrections (adult); Community-based corrections (juvenile); Correctional facilities; Correctional reform; Corrections effectiveness; Corrections management; Crime Rate; Custody vs treatment conflict; Deinstitutionalization; Deterrence; Deterrence effectiveness; Diversion programs; Effects of imprisonment; Europe; Indeterminate sentences; Models; Parole; Penology; Punishment; Rehabilitation
Note: Four papers presented at the Symposium on Current Aspects of Penology November 9, 1973.
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