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NCJRS Abstract

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NCJ Number: 76936 Find in a Library
Title: Criminal Justice in Canada - An Introductory Text
Author(s): C T Griffiths; J F Klein; S N Verdun-Jones
Date Published: 1980
Page Count: 363
Sponsoring Agency: Butterworth
Scarborough, Ontario M1P 451, Canada
Sale Source: Butterworth
2265 Midland Avenue
Scarborough, Ontario M1P 451,
Type: Overview Text
Language: English
Country: Canada
Annotation: Designed as a core text for introductory courses on the Canadian criminal justice system at the university and junior college level, this book examines how Canada's criminal justice system presently operates and discusses the system's historical origins and future directions.
Abstract: The text begins with a legal and developmental overview of the system's various components to show how it is supposed to function. It then discusses how the components often operate in practice. Major components include the police, courts, corrections, private agencies, and the community (municipal, Provincial, and national). The interaction between the public and the criminal justice system is discussed in a chapter that considers the reasons people do or do not call the police and also the larger questions about the effectiveness of the Canadian criminal justice system as perceived by the public. Also described are the origins of policing, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Provincial and municipal police, and police training. A discussion of police powers and discretion covers the powers of arrest, search and seizure, surveillance, and interrogation; issues relative to entrapment, the exclusionary rule, and the legal control of the police are also addressed. An examination of the criminal court system describes its structure, case flow, legal representation, and the role of the prosecutor. In addition, a consideration of sentencing encompasses sentencing options (absolute or conditional discharge, fines, probation, imprisonment, forfeiture, and restitution) and analyzes the reasons for the use of criminal sanctions. The problem of sentencing disparity is addressed, and the recent trend away from the use of imprisonment is noted. A review of correctional institutions examines the development of the prison generally and in Canada, the current structure of Canadian corrections at both Federal and Provincial levels, the social organization of the prison, the effectiveness of correctional treatment in Canada, and the shift in Canadian correctional philosophy away from the rehabilitative model toward the opportunities model which gives the offender the responsibility for planning and carrying out a self-improvement program. Other topics addressed are community-based corrections, the juvenile justice system, and special categories of offenders, such as dangerous offenders, native Indian offenders, and mentally disordered offenders. Finally, major trends in Canadian criminal justice are noted. Flow charts, footnotes, chapter references, and an index are provided.
Index Term(s): Canada; Community-based corrections (adult); Community-based corrections (juvenile); Correctional facilities; Court case flow; Court system; Criminal justice education; Criminal justice overview texts; Criminology; Defender systems; Defense services; Foreign criminal justice systems; Offender classification; Police community relations; Police decisionmaking; Police discretion; Police effectiveness; Prosecutors; Sentencing disparity; Sentencing/Sanctions
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