skip navigation


Register for Latest Research

Stay Informed
Register with NCJRS to receive NCJRS's biweekly e-newsletter JUSTINFO and additional periodic emails from NCJRS and the NCJRS federal sponsors that highlight the latest research published or sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs.

NCJRS Abstract

The document referenced below is part of the NCJRS Virtual Library collection. To conduct further searches of the collection, visit the Virtual Library. See the Obtain Documents page for direction on how to access resources online, via mail, through interlibrary loans, or in a local library.


NCJ Number: 77129 Add to Shopping cart Find in a Library
Title: Therapeutic Community Dropouts - Criminal Behavior Five Years After Treatment
Journal: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse  Volume:6  Issue:3  Dated:(1979)  Pages:253-271
Author(s): G DeLeon; M Andrews; H K Wexler; J Jaffe; M S Rosenthal
Corporate Author: Phoenix House Foundation, Inc
United States of America
Date Published: 1979
Page Count: 19
Sponsoring Agency: Phoenix House Foundation, Inc
New York, NY 10023
US Dept of Health, Education, and Welfare
Rockville, MD 20857
Grant Number: DA-01228-0
Type: Program/Project Evaluation
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: Findings are reported from a followup study of the criminal activity of therapeutic community dropouts.
Abstract: A total of 202 male dropouts, mainly heroin abusers averaging 3 to 6 years out of treatment, were sampled from the 1970-1971 Phoenix House (New York) admissions by race and time in program (greater than 1 month and less than 2 years). Criminal justice arrest records were compared between three pre- and post-treatment years. Percent and rate of arrest were shown to decline significantly in followup. The magnitude of reductions was uniform across race and legal status, varied by age, but increased systematically by the time in the program. Results replicated and extended earlier findings, confirming long-term positive change in criminal behavior associated with length of stay in the therapeutic community. Preliminary analyses further show that reductions in arrests are (1) correlated with reduced drug use and improved employment, (2) occur similarly for drug- and nondrug-related charges, (3) correlate positively with self-reported criminal activity, and (4) are client-specific (reductions are maintained among those who curtail criminal activity). In a long-term followup, however, the influence of other treatment and nontreatment factors must be assessed in terms of their influence on the reduction of criminal activity. External influences (the availability of heroin on the street, law enforcement pressures, entry into other drug programs, the economy, employment, etc.) as well as client-related factors (motivation, maturation) cloud precise identification of the effects of treatment at Phoenix House. The close replication of other findings, however, supports the effectiveness of the therapeutic approach in modifying antisocial behavior among drug abusers. A total of 18 references and tabular and graphic data are provided. (Author abstract modified)
Index Term(s): Black/African Americans; Program evaluation; Recidivism; Treatment/Therapeutic Community
To cite this abstract, use the following link:

*A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's website is provided. Tell us how you use the NCJRS Library and Abstracts Database - send us your feedback.