skip navigation


Register for Latest Research

Stay Informed
Register with NCJRS to receive NCJRS's biweekly e-newsletter JUSTINFO and additional periodic emails from NCJRS and the NCJRS federal sponsors that highlight the latest research published or sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs.

NCJRS Abstract

The document referenced below is part of the NCJRS Virtual Library collection. To conduct further searches of the collection, visit the Virtual Library. See the Obtain Documents page for direction on how to access resources online, via mail, through interlibrary loans, or in a local library.


NCJ Number: 82551 Find in a Library
Title: Six-City Study - A Survey of Racial Attitudes in Six Northern Cities - Preliminary Findings
Corporate Author: Brandeis University
Lemberg Ctr for the Study of Violence
United States of America
Date Published: 1967
Page Count: 24
Sponsoring Agency: Brandeis University
Waltham, MA 02154
Format: Document
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: Preliminary findings are presented from a survey of the racial attitudes of blacks and whites in six northern U.S. cities, conducted as part of a study examining factors affecting urban rioting.
Abstract: Three cities where riots had occurred were paired with three cities where riots had not occurred for the purposes of analysis. The pairings were Cleveland and Pittsburgh, Dayton and Akron, Ohio, and San Francisco and Boston. In each city, a cross section of 500 blacks and 500 whites age 18 and over was interviewed with a questionnaire developed for the survey. Suburban areas were not included in the survey. Blacks in all six cities expressed high levels of dissatisfaction with job opportunities, housing, school integration, police behavior, and the efforts of the Federal and local governments to encourage integration. The cities varied on the dissatisfaction index from a high of 56 percent to a low of 35 percent. The level of dissatisfaction in a city was not found to have a direct bearing on the possibility of the city's having a riot. Further, the level of dissatisfaction in all the cities was sufficiently high to support a riot, given a precipitating incident. While blacks are impatient for change, whites tend to think integration is proceeding at the proper pace or too fast. The attitude of whites toward blacks shows an ignorance of or indifference to the factual basis of black resentment and bitterness. Although disliking violence and having mixed feelings about its effects, blacks are shifting to the opinion that only intense social protest can bring relief from social injustice. Fuller appreciation by whites of the grievances and overwhelming problems of blacks and more aggressive steps by local governments to increase opportunities for blacks in socioeconomic spheres are required to reduce the riot potential in urban centers. Tabular data are provided. (Author summary modified)
Index Term(s): Public Attitudes/Opinion; Race relations; Racial discrimination; Riot causes
To cite this abstract, use the following link:

*A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's website is provided. Tell us how you use the NCJRS Library and Abstracts Database - send us your feedback.