skip navigation


Register for Latest Research

Stay Informed
Register with NCJRS to receive NCJRS's biweekly e-newsletter JUSTINFO and additional periodic emails from NCJRS and the NCJRS federal sponsors that highlight the latest research published or sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs.

NCJRS Abstract

The document referenced below is part of the NCJRS Virtual Library collection. To conduct further searches of the collection, visit the Virtual Library. See the Obtain Documents page for direction on how to access resources online, via mail, through interlibrary loans, or in a local library.


NCJ Number: 93204 Add to Shopping cart Find in a Library
Title: Using Human Systems Dynamics for Building Positive Attitudes Among Inmates Through Structured Recreation - A Look at the Sacramento County Jail
Author(s): D V Walakafra-Wills
Date Published: 1983
Page Count: 13
Sponsoring Agency: National Institute of Justice/
Rockville, MD 20849
Sale Source: National Institute of Justice/
NCJRS paper reproduction
Box 6000, Dept F
Rockville, MD 20849
United States of America
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: The Inmate Recreational Systems Dynamics process as used in the Sacramento County (Calif.) jail develops a recreation program responsive to individual inmate needs, building positive inmate attitudes and reducing jail tensions.
Abstract: Both inmates new to the jail environment and recidivists see jail as a dehumanizing situation characterized by toughness, routine order, and submission to authority. As a result, they become hostile to the jail staff and other inmates. The Inmate Recreational System Dynamics process is a positive indirect approach to relieve stress, depression, frustration, and idleness. The overall program is mandatory, but inmates have some freedom to select particular activities. In implementing the program, the Sacramento jail first hired experts to assess inmates' recreational needs and design a program, modified its indoor recreational areas, and purchased ping-pong tables, exercise equipment, video games, and table games. They instituted a standardized and a mandatory exercise routine at the beginning of each recreation period and published a monthly inmate newsletter. An outdoor recreation area allowed handball, weight lifting, speed bag and heavy bag workouts, and jogging. The program can serve as a reward and punishment tool and helps inmates adapt to the jail setting, maintain control over hostile and aggressive behavior, develop leisure-time skills, and maintain good physical condition. Diagrams and five references are supplied.
Index Term(s): Assaults on police; California; Inmate attitudes; Inmate recreational programs
To cite this abstract, use the following link:

*A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's website is provided. Tell us how you use the NCJRS Library and Abstracts Database - send us your feedback.