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NCJ Number: NCJ 093839     Find in a Library
Title: Police Handgun Ammunition - Incapacitation Effects, Volume 1- Evaluation
  Document URL: PDF 
Author(s): W J Bruchey ; D E Frank
Corporate Author: US Dept of Commerce
National Bureau of Standards
Law Enforcement Standards Laboratory
United States of America

National Institute of Justice (NIJ)
US Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
United States of America
Date Published: 1983
Page Count: 51
  Annotation: After a critique of theories used to rank bullet effectiveness prior to 1970, this first volume of a two-volume report discusses the development of new methods and theories and examines the ricochet potential/characteristics for handgun bullets.
Abstract: The testing considered (1) the ability of the average police officer to deliver effective fire, (2) the relative effectiveness of hits at different locations and depths of penetration into a human target, (3) rapid incapacitation as the preferred effect (independent of eventual death), (4) the performance of bullets in a reproducible target medium (ordnance gelatin), and (5) a method to extend the ranking system to variations in cartridge loadings without an extensive new test program. The kinetic energy theory of Hatcher and the energy deposit theory of the U.S. Army and Dr. DeMaio were examined and found to be lacking, and a new measure of handgun bullet effectiveness against human targets was developed. The new measure, called the Relative Incapacitation Index (RII), is the product of the volume of the Maximum Temporary Cavity produced by the interaction of a projectile and the tissue simulant (gelatin) at a given depth and the average vulnerability to incapacitation at that depth summed together for the entire penetration depth of the bullet to a maximum depth of 22 cm. The study concludes that there is no ideal firearm system (weapon/ammunition) for all situations; each police department must evaluate its own special requirements and choose a defensive weapon system capable of meeting its needs; however, the study shows that for handguns in 9 mm/38-caliber to 45-caliber range, a deforming projectile, driven at a velocity above the minimum deformation velocity, and an RII between 10 and 30 is a reasonable goal for handgun ammunition for use against a normally dressed assailant in an urban environment. Appendixes contain references, tables of coefficients for the RII predictive equation, the Theoretical Cavity Model for nondeforming projectiles, and vulnerability studies. For the second volume, which presents experimental data, see NCJ 93840.
Index Term(s): Police weapons ; Bullet hole identification ; Equipment evaluation
Sponsoring Agency: US Dept of Justice NIJ Pub
United States of America
Sale Source: Superintendent of Documents, GPO
Washington, DC 20402
United States of America

National Institute of Justice/
NCJRS paper reproduction
Box 6000, Dept F
Rockville, MD 20849
United States of America

National Institute of Justice/
NCJRS Publication Sales
Box 6000 Department F
Rockville, MD 20849
United States of America
Country: United States of America
Language: English
Note: NIJ Report 100-83
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