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NCJ Number: 97385 Find in a Library
Title: Applied Typology and Victimology in the Hostage Negotiation Process
Journal: Journal of Crime and Justice  Volume:7  Dated:(9184)  Pages:63-86
Author(s): M F Welch
Date Published: 1984
Page Count: 24
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: This paper traces the historical development of hostage negotiations, presents a typology of hostage takers, explains the types of victims and the psychological dynamics of being a hostage, and presents recommendations for victims and for negotiators in view of these findings.
Abstract: A historical summary of the development of hostage negotiations points to the influence of the 1971 riot at Attica State Prison and the crisis at the 1972 Munich Olympics. The work of two New York police officers, Bolz and Schlossberg, in a 1973 hostage situation is described in terms of how it laid the groundwork for later developments in hostage negotiation. Typologies of hostage takers are discussed in terms of their descriptions of the crucial characteristics involved and the way they help the negotiator tailor the negotiation to these factors. Typologies developed by several theorists are presented, including (1) Hacker's classification of hostage takers as crusaders, criminals, and crazies and (2) Goldaber's and Strenz's classifications, which overlap with that of Hacker. The types and basis of choice of victims, the immediate and delayed effects of being taken hostage, and 13 recommended coping strategies are presented. The negotiation process is described in terms of the choice of the negotiator and the mechanics of safe and effective negotiation. An explanation of the negotiator's roles during the various phases of negotiation covers the initial safety measures that need to be ensured, the gathering of information, therapeutic intervention, and the process of persuasion. Twenty-one references are listed.
Index Term(s): Hostage negotiations; Hostage syndromes; Hostage takers; Hostages
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