skip navigation


Register for Latest Research

Stay Informed
Register with NCJRS to receive NCJRS's biweekly e-newsletter JUSTINFO and additional periodic emails from NCJRS and the NCJRS federal sponsors that highlight the latest research published or sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs.

NCJRS Abstract

The document referenced below is part of the NCJRS Virtual Library collection. To conduct further searches of the collection, visit the Virtual Library. See the Obtain Documents page for direction on how to access resources online, via mail, through interlibrary loans, or in a local library.


NCJ Number: 97788 Find in a Library
Title: Fines in Sentencing in New York State
Author(s): R Hunter; W Oliver; M Philip; R Runk
Corporate Author: New York State
Division of Criminal Justice Services
Office of Policy Analysis Research and Statistical Service
Date Published: 1985
Page Count: 110
Sponsoring Agency: New York State
Albany, NY 12203
Type: Report (Study/Research)
Format: Document
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: Following a brief review of the historical and contemporary perspectives on fines, their use, and related constitutional issues, the New York State fine system is examined theoretically and empirically.
Abstract: In New York, statutory provisions for the imposition of fines include Penal Law Article 60 which authorizes imposition of fines, Penal Law Article 80 which governs the amount of the fine by category of offense, the Vehicle and Traffic Law, and Article 420 of the Criminal Procedure Law which provides for collection and enforcement of fines. A survey of court personnel responsible for collection of fines indicates that immediate payment or payment by a fixed date were the most common payment methods. Money orders, traveler's checks, cash, and cash bail were the most common forms of payment. Failure to respond to due notices results in the issuance of an arrest warrant. Onsite field interviews with judges in three counties indicate that vehicle and traffic and petit offenses were those most commonly fined. Punishment was the most popular rationale for imposing fines. Factors considered in determining whether to impose a fine included criminal history, nature of offense, and economic status of offender. Amount of fine was determined by amount of gain, statutory units, offender economic status, and offense seriousness. Judges were largely satisfied with current collection and enforcement practices. A review of the New York State criminal history data base indicated that fines were imposed for lesser offenses such as impaired driving, petty larceny, and disorderly conduct. The average fine was $100, but the majority of fines were less than $50. A review of alternative proposed and in-place fine models is provided. Endnotes, tabular data, research instruments, and responses to survey questions are presented in appendixes. (Author abstract modified)
Index Term(s): Dispositions; Fine defaults; Fines; Judicial decisions; Laws and Statutes; Legal research; New York; Sentencing/Sanctions; State laws
To cite this abstract, use the following link:

*A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's website is provided. Tell us how you use the NCJRS Library and Abstracts Database - send us your feedback.