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NCJ Number: 99097 Add to Shopping cart Find in a Library
Title: Foundations of Parole in California
Journal: Law and Society Review  Volume:19  Issue:1  Dated:(1985)  Pages:69-106
Author(s): S L Messinger; J E Berecochea; D Rauma; R A Berk
Date Published: 1985
Page Count: 38
Sponsoring Agency: National Institute of Justice (NIJ)
Washington, DC 20531
National Science Foundation
Washington, DC 20550
US Dept of Justice NIJ Pub
Washington, DC 20531
Type: Historical Overview
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: This article examines the origins and early development of parole in California from 1893 through 1914, with a focus on the underlying rationales of evolving parole policies and their implications for the study of penal reforms.
Abstract: Parole initially was introduced in California and used for over 10 years, to relieve governors of part of the burden of exercising clemency to reduce the excessive sentences of selected State prisoners. In 1880, prison management was shifted from elected officials to an appointed board, laying the ground for a shift of the governor's clemency powers under the parole law. The focus was on the parole law as a mechanism to remedy injustices in sentencing. Later, the parole law was used to relieve overcrowding in prisons. Paroling authorities argued parole would save money by reducing the need for additional prison space. Thus, parole was not viewed as part of a rehabilitative corrections regime. The emergence of a rehabilitative justification for parole did not come until 1914, after the hiring of more parole officers to assure public safety. The adoption and operation of parole in California is best understood as an incident in the still continuing bureaucratization of the sentencing process. A total of 27 footnotes and 49 references are included.
Index Term(s): California; Correctional reform; History of corrections; Parole; Policy analysis
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