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NCJ Number: 99654 Find in a Library
Title: Soccer Hooliganism in Black Africa
Journal: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology  Volume:29  Issue:2  Dated:(1985)  Pages:135-146
Author(s): P E Igbinovia
Date Published: 1985
Page Count: 12
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: This article discusses the increasing incidence of violence and hooliganism at soccer matches in black Africa, and hooliganism at soccer matches in black Africa, possible causes underlying such behavior, and prevention measures.
Abstract: Serious incidents of violence by both players and spectators at soccer games in Nigeria, Ghana, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Cameroon, and Gabon are described briefly. The article reviews theories on crowd behavior and deindividuation, whereby the individual feels that disruptive behavior is acceptable if done in the company of like-minded people. The author emphasizes that such theories do not address the causes of soccer hooliganism in black Africa because the underlying reasons are multifaceted, ranging from the trivial to the bizarre. Among the causes identified are bad officiating, loss of national pride when the team loses, allegations that players use magic charms to gain advantages, ethnic insensibility and the use of profanity, and the use of hooliganism to express political convictions. Over 20 suggestions to prevent and control soccer hooliganism focus on official rules; physical security; and severe penalties for violent behavior by teams, individual players, and spectators. 24 references.
Index Term(s): Africa; Collective violence; Sporting event violent behavior
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