skip navigation


Register for Latest Research

Stay Informed
Register with NCJRS to receive NCJRS's biweekly e-newsletter JUSTINFO and additional periodic emails from NCJRS and the NCJRS federal sponsors that highlight the latest research published or sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs.

NCJRS Abstract

The document referenced below is part of the NCJRS Virtual Library collection. To conduct further searches of the collection, visit the Virtual Library. See the Obtain Documents page for direction on how to access resources online, via mail, through interlibrary loans, or in a local library.


NCJ Number: 99753 Find in a Library
Title: Conditions of Confinement Within Security Prisons - Scandinavia and California
Journal: Crime and Delinquency  Volume:31  Issue:4  Dated:(October 1985)  Pages:573-600
Author(s): J R Snortum; K Bodal
Date Published: 1985
Page Count: 28
Type: Survey (Cross-Cultural)
Format: Article
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: Within the past three decades, the Scandinavian countries have acquired an international reputation for the development of innovative and humane prisons.
Abstract: Most of the favorable attention from journalists and social scientists has centered upon the so-called 'model prisons,' which are typically smaller, newer, and 'open.' However, the majority of Scandinavian prisoners are still incarcerated in the larger, older, locked prisons that are rather traditional in design and function. One might question whether these traditional prisons are, in fact, superior to American state prisons and whether they would meet emerging U.S. standards for conditions of confinement. This investigation surveyed the nature of prison programs, staffing ratios, living conditions, and visiting conditions within 16 'closed' or secure prisons, including 4 each from Norway, Sweden, Finland, and California. On most measures, the conditions of confinement were most severe in California prisons, much less severe in Finnish prisons, and least severe in Norwegian and Swedish prisons. (Author abstract)
Index Term(s): California; Correctional facilities; Corrections standards; Facility conditions; Finland; Foreign correctional facilities; Maximum security; Norway; Sweden; US/foreign comparisons
To cite this abstract, use the following link:

*A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's website is provided. Tell us how you use the NCJRS Library and Abstracts Database - send us your feedback.