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NCJRS Abstract

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NCJ Number: 185014 Find in a Library
Title: Introduction to Corrections: Philosophy, Goals, and History (From Corrections in the United States: A Contemporary Perspective, Third Edition, P 1-29, 2001, Dean J. Champion -- See NCJ-185013)
Author(s): Dean J. Champion
Date Published: 2001
Page Count: 29
Sponsoring Agency: Prentice Hall (Division of Simon & Schuster, Inc)
Paramus, NJ 07652-5240
Sale Source: Prentice Hall (Division of Simon & Schuster, Inc)
Promotion Manager
240 Rrisch Court
Paramus, NJ 07652-5240
United States of America
Type: Overview Text
Format: Book (Hardbound)
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: After defining corrections, this chapter discusses the early origins of corrections, the history of corrections in the United States, correctional functions and goals, some correctional models, and correctional reforms.
Abstract: "Corrections" is defined as the "vast number of persons, agencies, and organizations that manage accused, convicted, or adjudicated criminal offenders and juvenile offenders." A section on the early origins of corrections goes back to ancient Greece and Rome; it addresses the role of religion in the development of prisons and punishments throughout the world, as well as various types of punishments used. A review of the early origins of corrections is followed by a brief history of corrections in the United States. A subsequent section on correctional functions and goals notes that most authorities agree that corrections oversees the punishment of criminals; however, there is disagreement over how and why offenders should be punished. Several functions of corrections are discussed: retribution, deterrence or prevention, incapacitation or isolation, rehabilitation, reintegration, and control. The author advises that the functions of corrections are best understood by examining several competing philosophies of punishment. These philosophies have evolved into models and schemes used to construct and operate various correctional programs. The models have differing assumptions about criminals and the reasons they become criminals. The five models profiled in this chapter are the medical or treatment model; the rehabilitation or reform model; the community model; the just-deserts, deserts, or retribution model; and the justice model. The chapter concludes with an overview of the general character of correctional reforms in the United States. Key terms, questions for review, and 4 suggested readings
Main Term(s): Corrections policies
Index Term(s): Correctional reform; Definitions; History of corrections; Models; Punishment; Rehabilitation
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