skip navigation

Add your conference to our Justice Events calendar


Register for Latest Research

Stay Informed
Register with NCJRS to receive NCJRS's biweekly e-newsletter JUSTINFO and additional periodic emails from NCJRS and the NCJRS federal sponsors that highlight the latest research published or sponsored by the Office of Justice Programs.

NCJRS Abstract

The document referenced below is part of the NCJRS Library collection. To conduct further searches of the collection, visit the NCJRS Abstracts Database. See the Obtain Documents page for direction on how to access resources online, via mail, through interlibrary loans, or in a local library.

  NCJ Number: NCJ 187774   Add to Shopping cart   Find in a Library
  Title: Sex Trafficking of Women in the United States: International and Domestic Trends
  Document URL: PDF 
  Dataset URL: DATASET 1
  Author(s): Janice G. Raymond Ph.D. ; Donna M. Hughes Ph.D.
  Project Director: Carol J. Gomez B.A.
  Date Published: 03/2001
  Page Count: 139
  Annotation: This study examined international and domestic trafficking of women for sexual exploitation in the United States and used interviews with 128 trafficked and prostituted women to follow their paths from the time before they were recruited or trafficked and to determine the consequences in terms of violence, crime, health, and other human costs.
  Abstract: The research focused on the connections between the supply of women trafficked from abroad and within the United States to the demand created by sex industries and the involvement of local sex industries in sex trafficking and prostitution. It also examined the linkages between international and domestic trafficking and sex industries, regional differences in these activities, and the social consequences. Results revealed that sex businesses in each region studied were prolific and diverse. Organized businesses and crime networks were instrumental in recruiting international and United States women. Conditions facilitating recruitment of women included economic desperation and disadvantage, the lack of a sustainable income, and poverty. Trafficking patterns were diverse. Twenty percent of the international and 28 percent of the United States women had intimate relationships with the men who pimped them. Methods used to control women in the sex industry included denying freedom of movement, isolation, controlling money, threats and intimidation, drug and alcohol addictions, threatened exposure of pornographic films, and physical and sexual violence. The women suffered severe health consequences from injuries caused by violence and from diseases contracted while in the sex industry. Women found many ways to cope, resist, and survive the exploitation and violence. Findings indicate the need for prevention, victim protection, and prosecution of traffickers. Recommended actions include establishing a human rights definition of trafficking, raising public awareness, establishing strict penalties and consistent law enforcement, using coordinated and collaborative efforts, and providing culturally appropriate legal strategies and social services. Figures, tables, and approximately 300 references
  Main Term(s): Criminology
  Index Term(s): Criminal Solicitation ; Smuggling/Trafficking ; Crime specific countermeasures ; Sex establishments ; Psychological victimization effects ; Human rights violations ; Prostitution across international borders ; Female victims ; Prostitution causes
  Grant Number: 98-WT-VX-0032
  Sale Source: National Institute of Justice/NCJRS
Box 6000
Rockville, MD 20849
United States of America

NCJRS Photocopy Services
Box 6000
Rockville, MD 20849-6000
United States of America
  Type: Report (Study/Research)
  Country: United States of America
  Language: English
  Note: Dataset may be archived by the NIJ Data Resources Program at the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data
  To cite this abstract, use the following link:

*A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's website is provided. Tell us how you use the NCJRS Library and Abstracts Database - send us your feedback.