skip navigation

Justinfo Subscribe to Stay Informed

Add your conference to our Justice Events calendar


NCJRS Abstract


Subscribe to Stay Informed
Want to be in the know? JUSTINFO is a biweekly e-newsletter containing information about new publications, events, training, funding opportunities, and Web-based resources available from the NCJRS Federal sponsors. Sign up to get JUSTINFO in your inbox.

The document referenced below is part of the NCJRS Library collection.
To conduct further searches of the collection, visit the NCJRS Abstracts Database.

How to Obtain Documents
NCJ Number: NCJ 189089   Add to Shopping cart   Find in a Library
Title: Sentencing and Corrections in the 21st Century: Setting the Stage for the Future
  Document URL: PDF 
Author(s): Doris L. Mackenzie
Corporate Author: University of Maryland
Dept of Criminal Justice and Criminology
United States of America
Date Published: 07/2001
Page Count: 198
  Annotation: This document provides an overview of sentencing and corrections trends for the past 30 years.
Abstract: A dramatic increase in offender populations accompanied changes in sentencing and correctional philosophy; this increase was unprecedented and followed a period of relative stability. The number of individuals on probation and parole also grew substantially. The expansion of the prison population affected State and Federal prisons. Women made up a small percentage of the total correctional population. However, the rate of incarceration for women has grown faster than the rate for men. Minority males had both the greatest overall rate of incarceration and the greatest increases in rates over time. Direct expenditures for correctional activities by State governments grew from $4.26 billion in 1980 to $21.27 billion in 1994. Thirty years ago, the Federal Government, all States, and the District of Columbia had indeterminate sentencing systems that emphasized the rehabilitation of juvenile delinquents and adult offenders. Interest in incapacitation grew during the mid-1970s, in part due to concerns about the efficacy of rehabilitation, rising crime rates and public fear of crime. Also influencing sentencing was the “war on drugs,” intermediate sanctions, and truth-in-sentencing. Changes in the philosophy of sentencing and corrections have had a dramatic impact on the criminal justice system. There is no standard approach to sentencing and corrections today. Structured sentencing, mandatory sentencing, three-strikes laws, parole release, decision making, prison crowding, and behavioral, cultural, and social changes have all had an effect on the correctional system. A new penology is emerging as a direct consequence of the changes in the philosophy and practice of corrections; the objective is to identify and manage unruly people, not punish or rehabilitate them. Emerging paradigms are restorative and community justice programs, re-emerging interest in treatment, specialized courts, the reintegration and reentry of prisoners into the community, new technology, and evidence-based corrections. 6 Appendices, 81 notes, tables, and references
Main Term(s): Inmate statistics ; Sentencing trends
Index Term(s): Corrections statistics ; Criminal justice statistics ; Sentencing disparity ; Sentencing reform ; Sentence effectiveness ; Corrections trends
Sponsoring Agency: National Institute of Justice (NIJ)
US Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
United States of America
Grant Number: 96-SC-LX-0001
Sale Source: University of Maryland
Dept of Criminal Justice and Criminology
2220 Samuel Lefrak Hall
College Park, MD 20742
United States of America

NCJRS Photocopy Services
Box 6000
Rockville, MD 20849-6000
United States of America
Type: Historical Overview
Country: United States of America
Language: English
Note: Dataset may be archived by the NIJ Data Resources Program at the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data
  To cite this abstract, use the following link:

* A link to the full-text document is provided whenever possible. For documents not available online, a link to the publisher's web site is provided.