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NCJ Number: NCJ 219594     Find in a Library
Title: Biometric Basics
Corporate Author: National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC)
United States of America
Date Published: 2007
Page Count: 3
Sponsoring Agency: National Institute of Justice
US Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
United States of America
Grant Number: 96-MU-MU-K011
Sale Source: NCJRS Photocopy Services
Box 6000
Rockville, MD 20849-6000
United States of America

National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC)
700 N. Frederick Ave.
Bldg. 181, Room 1L30
Gaithersburg, MD 20879
United States of America
Document: PDF 
Type: Best Practice/State-of-the-Art Review
Language: English
Country: United States of America
Annotation: This article describes biometrics and discusses the five leading biometric technologies: fingerprint readers, iris recognition technology, face recognition technology, hand geometry scanners, and dynamic signature identification systems.
Abstract: The term biometrics is used either to describe a characteristic or to describe a process. Biometrics generally refers to the anatomical, physiological, or behavioral characteristics used for automated recognition of an individual. Biometric processing systems typically have five components: (1) a sensor to capture and digitize data from individuals; (2) processing algorithms for forming biometric templates; (3) a unit for storing data and templates; (4) matching algorithms for comparing new templates with the stored templates; and (5) a decision process for accepting or rejecting individuals. Three types of errors are used to rank the performance of biometric systems: (1) the failure-to-acquire rate; (2) the false-accept rate; and (3) the false-reject rate. Each of these errors is described followed by a discussion of the five leading biometric technologies: fingerprint readers, iris recognition technology, face recognition technology, hand geometry scanners, and dynamic signature identification systems. Fingerprint readers are used to capture an image of a fingerprint and then mathematically encode the pattern into a template for comparison. An iris recognition system captures the image of an iris with a digital camera. The iris is converted to a template using algorithms and is then compared against all the other iris templates in the database. Face recognition technology uses a camera to capture the image of a face, which is then converted into a template and compared with others in the database. Hand geometry scanners use a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera to capture images of the hand using a plate with guiding pegs and mirrors. The scanner then constructs a template to compare to others in the database. Dynamic signature identification systems use software to measure the speed, direction, and pressure of pen strokes signed on an electronic tablet. The data is then converted into a digital template for comparison with future signatures.
Main Term(s): Personnel identification systems
Index Term(s): Forensics/Forensic Sciences ; Fingerprint detection techniques
Note: From Techbeat, Spring 2007; downloaded August 24, 2007.
   
  To cite this abstract, use the following link:
https://www.ncjrs.gov/App/Publications/abstract.aspx?ID=241386

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