State

Jurisdiction

Male

Female

AL

Birmingham

8-17

10-17

CA

EL Dorado

14

14

CA

French camp

11-113

9

DE

Wilmington

11-14


FL

Bartow

12

12

FL

Pensacola

8-15

10-14

FL

Tampa

10

13

IL

Chicago

9-13

9-13

NM

Las Cruces

8-11

9-11

NV

Duckwater


10-13

NV

Las Vegas

11

11

OH

Lancaster

6-15

10-14

SC

Charleston

13.5

14

 

b. Family Drug Courts

 

(1) General Caseload Information

 

Only the Reno family drug court was able to provide data on the number of dependency case filings during the past year (600); Reno and Bowling Green estimated the percentage involving substance problems (80% and 50%, respectively). The most frequently cited drugs used was alcohol, methamphetamine and marijuana.

 

(2) Program Enrollment

 

Only the Pensacola and Reno programs were able to provide enrollment information, which was as follows:

 

Total Current Partics. Grads.

Capacity Male Female Male Female Terminated

 

 

Pensacola 30 2 28 1 28 10

Reno 50 10 32 2 8 2

(3) Extent of Drug Use and Age at First Use

 

Almost all of the reporting programs indicated that the extent of drug use among participants in their respective family courts was severe, using the definition provided in the survey instrument cited above. No information regarding drug use was available from the other drug courts.

 

The age at first use for participants in the reporting family drug courts was, for the most part, older than reported for the juvenile drug courts:

 

Age at First Use

Family Drug Court Male Female

Pensacola, Fl 18-40

Greenfield, Mass. 30-40 30-45

Reno, Nev. 13-15 10-22

Central Islip, NY 25-39 26-40

 

 

3. Court Organizational Structure

 

For almost all of the responding juvenile drug courts, the juvenile court functions as part of the general trial court. All of the responding family drug courts operate within the general trial court organization in their respective jurisdictions.

 

B. Primary Program Goals

 

Respondents were asked to indicate the primary (p) and secondary (s) goals for their drug court programs. As Chart I -B-1 below indicates, all of the juvenile drug courts cited as their primary goals: eliminate drug use of the juvenile and reduce the likelihood of further criminal activity of the participant. In addition, many of the programs cited as other goals: improve the juvenile's performance at school; improve parental supervision and parenting skills; and reduce substance use of parents, if appropriate..

 

Chart II-B-1: Goals of Juvenile and Family Drug Courts

 

State

Jurisdiction

Juv

Fam

Eliminate Subst. Use of Juvenile

Eliminate Substance use Parent (if relevant.)

Reduce likelihood of Criminal Involvement of Juvenile

Address Socio-Economic Problems

Improve Juvenile School Performance

Improve Parental Supervision

Other

AL

Birmingham

x


p

s

p

s

p

p


AZ

Phoenix

x


p


p

s

s

s


CA

Auburn

x


p


p


p



CA

EL Dorado

x


p

s

p

s

p

p


CA

French camp

x


p


p

s

p

p


CA

San Francisco

x


p


p


p



CA

San Jose

x


p

s

p

s

p

p


CA

Tulare

x


p

s

p

s

p

p


DE

Wilmington

x


p

s

p

p

p

s


FL

Bartow

x


p

s

s

s

p

s


FL

Ft. Lauderdale

x


p


p

p

p

p


FL

Jacksonville

x


p

s

p

s

p

s


FL

Key West

x


p


p

s

p

p

promote public health thru HIV/ STD - reproductive health education

FL

Orlando

x


p

s

p

s

p

s


FL

Pensacola (family)


x

p


p

s


p


FL

Pensacola (juvenile)

x


p


p

s

s



FL

Tampa

x


p

s

p

s

s

p


IL

Chicago

x


p

s

p


p

s


KY

Bowling Green

x

x

p

p

p

p

p

p


KY

Louisville

x


p

s

s

s

p

p


MA

Greenfield


x


x


x


x


MI

Kalamazoo

x









MO

Benton

x


p

p

s

s

s



MT

Missoula

x


p

p






NJ

Jersey City

x


p

s

p

s

p

s

p - If not in school, obtain job/GED/Vocational Training

NM

Las Cruces

x


p

p

s

p

s


p - Restore child to healthy productive living and to make right positive choices in daily living

NV

Las Vegas (Juvenile)

x


p


p





NV

Duckwater

x


p

s



s

s


NV

Las Vegas (Family)


x


p


s




NV

Reno


x


p

s


p



NY

Central Islip


x


p


p


p


OH

Lancaster

x


p

s

p

s

p

s


SC

Charleston

x


p

s

p

p

p

p


UT

Salt Lake City

x


p

p

s

s

s

s


 

 

C. Eligibility Criteria

 

1. Juvenile Drug Courts

 

a. Types of Charges

 

All of the reporting juvenile drug courts target juveniles charged with drug possession and theft and public intoxication. Many also target juveniles charged with DUI/DWI, truancy and prostitution, although most programs have had difficulty in effectively dealing with females charged with prostitution.

 

b. Extent of Substance Use

 

Almost all of the programs are targeting individuals with moderate to severe drug dependency. The Key West program also targets juveniles who may not presently be drug involved but, upon screening, indicate risk for potential future drug involvement.

 

c. Disqualifying Factors

 

The most common factors that disqualify a juvenile from drug court eligibility are: residence out of the county; a pending charge involving a violent offense; and the presence of a mental disorder that precludes the juvenile from functioning in a drug court program.

 

2. Family Drug Courts

 

Most cases referred to the family drug courts involve abuse and neglect of children and the potential termination of parental rights. Most of the parents referred to the family drug courts are reported to have severe substance abuse problems. Although most of the family drug court cases enter through the civil process, at least one family drug court (Reno) will consider cases that involve criminal charges as well.

D. Drug Court Policies, Procedures, Organization and Drug Testing

 

1. Intake, Screening and Assessment

 

a. Juvenile Drug Court

 

(1) Judicial System Procedures, Participant Screening and Assessment

Most of the juvenile drug court programs identify potential drug court candidates within one to two days following arrest and conduct screening and assessment of these juveniles within four to seven days. In most programs, the juvenile appears before the drug court judge within 7 - 10 days of arrest, or sooner, at which time he or she also begins treatment and other program services. All of the programs screen eligible juveniles for substance use, with most using a standardized assessment instrument. Several (Phoenix, Las Cruces and Duckwater, for example) indicated they are using the SASSI ; Bartow will be using ASAM criteria after counselors are trained. The El Dorado, Pensacola, Tampa, Jersey City and Duckwater programs also screen parents for substance use. Additional screening to identify parents involved in pending criminal matters is conducted by the Auburn, El Dorado, Tulare, Key West, Orlando, Benton, Missoula, Las Cruces, Duckwater, Las Ve! gas, Lancaster and Salt Lake City juvenile drug courts.

 

Like adult drug courts, a variety of agencies perform the screening, assessment and case management functions for juvenile drug courts, as Charts D-2 and D-3 illustrate:

 


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