Chart II-D-10: Drug Testing Frequency in Juvenile Drug Courts: Phase 4

 

State

Jurisdiction

Phase 4: Twice per Week

Phase 4: Once per Week

Phase 4: Every Other week

Phase 4: Other Frequency

AL

Birmingham




monthly

AZ

Phoenix




random

CA

EL Dorado



x


CA

French camp



x


CA

San Francisco




depends on the individual participant

CA

San Jose



x


FL

Ft. Lauderdale




at least 1 x per month

FL

Jacksonville



x


FL

Tampa

x




NM

Las Cruces



x


NV

Las Vegas

x



1 time/wk

 

 

b. Drugs For Which Tests Are Conducted

 

As Chart D-8 indicates, most juvenile drug courts are conducting limited testing of participants at the initial time of program entry, but follow up with routine periodic testing for a fuller screen of substances, particularly if there is any suspicion of their use.

 

Chart II-D-11(1): Drugs Tested For Initially/Routinely: Juvenile Drug Courts

 

State

Jurisdiction

Alcohol

 

Barbiturates

 

Heroin

 

Marijuana

Crack/Cocaine

   

Initially

Routinely

Initially

Routinely

Initially

Routinely

Initially

Routinely

Initially

Routinely

AL

Birmingham




x


x


x


x

AZ

Phoenix


x


x


x


x


x

CA

Auburn

x

x





x

x



CA

EL Dorado




x


x


x


x

CA

French camp


x


x




x


x

CA

San Jose


x


x


x




x

CA

Tulare


x


x


x


x


x

FL

Bartow


x






x


x

FL

Ft. Lauderdale



x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

FL

Jacksonville

x

x


x


x


x


x

FL

Key West

x


x




x

x

x

x

FL

Orlando





x

x

x

x

x

x

FL

Pensacola (juvenile)

x

x





x

x

x

x

FL

Tampa

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

IL

Chicago

x


x



x


x


x

KY

Louisville



x


x


x

x

x

x

MO

Benton

x


x

x



x

x

x


MT

Missoula

x

x



x


x

x

x


NJ

Jersey City

x


x


x


x


x


NM

Las Cruces


x


x


x


x


x

NV

Duckwater

x

x









NV

Las Vegas (Juvenile)



x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

OH

Lancaster

x

x

x

x



x

x

x

x

SC

Charleston

x


x


x


x

x

x

x

UT

Salt Lake City

x

x

x


x

x

x

x

x

x

 

Chart II-D-11(2): Drugs Tested For Initially/Routinely: Juvenile Drug Courts

 

State

Jurisdiction

LSD

 

Methamphetamines

 

PCP

 

Other

 
   

Initially

Routinely

Initially

Routinely

Initially

Routinely

Initially

Routinely

AL

Birmingham




x




benzodiazepines, propoxyphene

(*included opiates w/heroin category)

AZ

Phoenix




x


x


inhalants

CA

Auburn



x

x





CA

EL Dorado




x


x



CA

French camp




x





CA

San Jose


x


x


x



CA

Tulare


x


x


x



FL

Bartow




x





FL

Jacksonville




x



If suspected


FL

Key West

x


x






FL

Orlando



x

x





FL

Pensacola (juvenile)







As indicated at assessment


FL

Tampa

x

x

x

x

x




IL

Chicago

x


x


x


means that will do initially if requested


KY

Louisville

x






benzodiazines


MI

Kalamazoo









MO

Benton

x


x

x





MT

Missoula



x






NJ

Jersey City



x


x




NM

Las Cruces


x


x


x


creatinene lets us know if kids are tying to flush out their system

NV

Las Vegas (Juvenile)

x


x

x





OH

Lancaster

x

x

x

x

x

x

inhalants

inhalants

SC

Charleston

x


x


x


opiates, benzodiazephene

opiates, benzodiazephene

UT

Salt Lake City



x

x





 

c. Costs per drug screen

 

As Chart II-D-12 illustrates, the costs for drug testing of juvenile drug court participants ranges between $ 1-$5 for approximately 40% of the programs and over $ 10.00 for another 40%. None of the reporting family drug courts, on the other hand, spend more than $ 3.00 per test. The relatively high costs for juvenile drug court testing compared with that experienced by many adult drug courts may be the result, in part, of the smaller volume of tests bing conducted.

 

Chart II-D-12: Costs Per Drug Screen: Juvenile and Family Drug Courts

 

>

State

Jurisdiction

$1-3.00

$3.01-5.00

$5.01-7.00

$7.01-9.00

$9.01-12.00

$12.01-15.00

$15.01-18.00

$18.01+

Explanation(s)

AL

Birmingham




x






 

AZ

Phoenix

x









CA

Auburn





x





CA

EL Dorado


x







Usually minor does not pay this cost.

CA

Tulare

x









FL

Bartow

x









FL

Ft. Lauderdale





x





FL

Jacksonville

x









FL

Key West

x









FL

Orlando





x





FL

Pensacola (juvenile)

x









FL

Tampa






x




IL

Chicago





x





KY

Louisville

x









MO

Benton








x

$30.00

MT

Missoula


x








NJ

Jersey City









Provided by treatment provider as part of overall contract, cost unknown at this time

NM

Las Cruces






x




NV

Duckwater










NV

Las Vegas

x









OH

Lancaster

x

x






24.00

we recently began using Dtx also -- on-site test for immediate positive/ negative response. We then send to accu-chem if we need to confirm amount

SC

Charleston






x




UT

Salt Lake City

x




x





 

 

d. Agencies Performing Urinalysis

 

Urinalysis for juvenile drug courts is performed by a variety of different agencies, most frequently by private treatment providers and probation departments.

 

Chart II-D-13: Agencies Performing Urinalysis: Juvenile Drug Courts

 

State

Jurisdiction

Pretrial Services

Prob. Dept

Corrections Agency

TASC

Private Tx

Crim. Lab

Public Health

Private Lab

Other

AL

Birmingham




x






AZ

Phoenix




x






CA

Auburn


x








CA

EL Dorado


x








CA

San Francisco


x






x


CA

San Jose






x




CA

Tulare


x



x





DE

Wilmington





x





FL

Bartow









On-site lab

FL

Ft. Lauderdale





x




private treatment provider as part of their service

FL

Jacksonville





x




Case manager who reports to judge only.

FL

Key West

x









FL

Orlando




x

x





FL

Pensacola (juvenile)





x

x




FL

Tampa





x





IL

Chicago




x






KY

Bowling Green










KY

Louisville







x



MI

Kalamazoo










MO

Benton






x




MT

Missoula








x

Private lab when calibration needed. We use "Quick test" immunoossy test. These are done at probation office.

NJ

Jersey City





x





NM

Las Cruces


x

x


x





NV

Duckwater









With the exception of the possibility of a blood or urine test at time of arrest or issuance of citation, only hand-held PBT for presence of alcohol is available and only for treatment purposes. Nearest computerized breath testing instrument for alcohol, or hospital for taking blood sample, is 74 miles away.

NV

Las Vegas





x





OH

Lancaster








x

ACCU-Chem, Texas

SC

Charleston








x


UT

Salt Lake City


x






x


 

e. Timeframes and Methods for Reporting Urinalysis Results to Court

 

Obtaining urinalysis reports appears to be a much slower process for juvenile and family drug courts than for their adult counterparts. Seven (25%) of the reporting programs require 8-24 hours and ten require over one day. On the other end, three of the reporting programs can obtain results in one to two hours and nine (30 %) can obtain urinalysis results in under one hour. For most of the reporting programs (13), urinalysis report are provided orally in court. Nine transmit reports by telephone; seven fax a hard copy. The remainder either mail a report or transmit it electronically.

 

Chart II-D-14: Timeframe for Obtaining Urinalysis Results

 

State

Jurisdiction

Juvenile

Family

HOURS

         
       

<1

1-2

2-4

4-8

8-24

over 24

AL

Birmingham

x







3-4 days

AZ

Phoenix

x






x


CA

Auburn

x







4-7 days

CA

EL Dorado

x







5-7 Days

CA

French camp

x







3-4 days

CA

San Francisco

x








CA

San Jose

x






x


CA

Tulare

x







2-7 days

DE

Wilmington

x








FL

Bartow

x


x






FL

Ft. Lauderdale

x







x

FL

Jacksonville

x


x






FL

Key West

x



x





FL

Orlando

x


x






FL

Pensacola (family)


x

x






FL

Pensacola (juvenile)

x


x






FL

Tampa

x



x*




* 1-2 hours if requested typically available at next court date

IL

Chicago

x







x

KY

Bowling Green

x

x







KY

Louisville

x







2-3 days

MA

Greenfield


x

x




x

If needed

MI

Kalamazoo

x








MO

Benton

x






x


MT

Missoula

x







Quick test results in 5 minutes - is positive we send off for calibration/verification. Depends when sent in.

NJ

Jersey City

x








NM

Las Cruces

x






x

Treatment provider = 8-24 hours

Probation Dept. = 1 week

NV

Duckwater

x








NV

Las Vegas

x

x




x



NV

Reno


x






at bi-weekly review

NY

Central Islip


x

x





less than one hour for in-court tests

drug test from treatment agencies take 2-5 days

OH

Lancaster

x


x




x

Dtx

SC

Charleston

x







average of 4 days

UT

Salt Lake City

x


x




x

On site testing

Lab test

 

f. Response to Positive Urinalysis

 

As with other major decision points in the drug court process, the judge was reported as the ultimate decision maker regarding how the drug court will respond to positive urinalyses. Close consultation is maintained, however, with the drug court team. Many programs also noted that the response to a positive urinalysis is made on a case by case basis. The range of potential responses to positive urinalysis include:

 

intensifying treatment: 78%

judicial admonition: 68%

more frequent urinalysis: 65%

short-term detention-less than 5 days: 50%

longer term detention -more than 10 days: 33%

program termination for repeated positive tests

(on a case by case basis): 33%

 

Sanctions for positive urinalyses and other indicators of program noncompliance are discussed further in Section H below.

 

 

6. Program Policies Regarding Use of Pharmacotherapeutic Interventions

 

Almost all of the reporting juvenile and family drug courts permit the use of prescription anti-depressants. Duckwater, Greenfield and Central Islip permit the use of methadone but most drug courts require withdrawal within a prescribed timeframe. Pensacola, Greenfield and Duckwater also permit the use of antibuse. Duckwater also permits the use of naltrexone and peyote in church ceremonies. For many of the juvenile drug court programs, the issue regarding the use of pharmacotherapeutic interventions has not yet been raised so no formal policy has been articulated.

 

 

7. Program Policies Regarding Use of Alcohol

 

None of the reporting juvenile drug courts permit the use of alcohol by participants and all but one of the family drug courts (Las Vegas) prohibit alcohol use. The Las Vegas program strongly discourages alcohol consumption by participants.. The prohibition on the use of alcohol

by most drug court programs stems from the recognition of (1) the addictive nature of alcohol consumption; and (2) the complex interrelationship between the use of alcohol and other drug dependencies.

 

E. Services Provided to Juvenile and Family Drug Court Participants

 

1. Type and Frequency of Treatment Services Provided

 

The charts that follow depict the range and frequency of treatment, rehabilitation, and other support services provided to juvenile drug court participants and their families. As Charts II-E-1 and II-E-2 illustrate, approximately half of the programs provide group therapy at least three times per week and individual therapy at least weekly throughout the period of program participation. Approximately half of the programs also provide family therapy. Approximately 25% provide some type of in-home services and approximately fifteen percent provide medical services or screening. A number of programs also provide special services to participants such as tutoring, life skills training, acupuncture, etc.)

 

Chart II-E-1(1): Type and Frequency of Treatment Services Provided: Juvenile and Family Drug Courts

 

State

Jurisdiction

Individual Therapy-Phase 1

     

Individual Therapy-Phase 2

     

Individual Therapy-Phase 3

   
   

Daily

3x

2x

1x

Daily

3x

2x

1x

Daily

3x

2x

1x

AZ

Phoenix




x




x




x

CA

Auburn




x









CA

San Jose




x




x




x

FL

Ft. Lauderdale




x




x





FL

Jacksonville




x




x





FL

Key West




x




x




x

FL

Orlando



x





x





FL

Tampa

x


x










MO

Benton



x

x



x






MT

Missoula




x




x




x

NJ

Jersey City







x





x

NM

Las Cruces





x



x





NV

Las Vegas




x









OH

Lancaster


x











SC

Charleston




x









UT

Salt Lake City




x









 

 


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