Notes
Chapter 4: Mapping Crime and Geographic Information Systems

  1. Data transformations using square roots or logarithms smooth data and reduce problems associated with having both very large and very small values in a distribution The effect may change the distribution to a more normal, or bell-shaped, curve.

  2. The need for more integration of statistical tools is gradually receiving more recognition, and the problem should diminish over time. For example, a new package known as Regional Crime Analysis GIS (RCAGIS) developed for the Baltimore-Washington, D.C., region has an embedded statistical package, CRIMESTAT. Also, the S+ package by MathSoft interfaces with ArcView.

  3. Hot spots may be split by jurisdiction boundaries in such a way that they fail to meet hot spot criteria on either side of the line.

  4. Reminder: Small-scale maps show large areas, large-scale maps show small areas.

  5. This problem of overlapping points can be fixed with software manipulation.

  6. Regions of all nations have FIPS codes. Greater London, U.K., for example, is UK17.
Chapter 4: Mapping Crime and Geographic Information Systems
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Mapping Crime: Principle and Practice, by Keith Harries, Ph.D., December 1999