Chapter 6: Crime Mapping Futures
We often lose sight of the fact that GIS can be useful on any geographic scale, from global (small scale) to small (large scale), such as a room. Most crime analysis is conducted on what could be labeled medium scale, typically representing a city or neighborhoods within a city. Rengert, Mattson, and Henderson (1998) have reported on GIS applied to individual buildings or other small areas, such as street segments, terming this approach high-resolution GIS. The four panels of figure 6.3 contain several views representative of this approach. In the upper left panel, a "plan" view shows the footprint of a highrise building on the Temple University campus in Philadelphia. Crime incidents have been compressed so that they are all seen as if at one level. This compression enables law enforcement to determine whether incidents might be clustered around elevator shafts, for example, or restrooms, which tend to be at identical locations on each floor of a highrise. The upper right panel provides a perspective of the building with incident locations in their three-dimensional positions. At lower left, a technique for delineating clusters uses spheres to provide a sense of what might be called "highrise hot spots." Then at lower right, a cluster within a cluster defines the limits of the larger pattern of incidents and then focuses on the denser pattern within.