Figure 1: Underlying Factors That Contribute to Minority Overrepresentation

Juvenile Justice System
    • Racial/ethnic bias
    • Insufficient diversion options
    • System “labeling”
    • Barriers to parental advocacy
    • Poor juvenile justice system/community integration
Socioeconomic Conditions
    • Low-income jobs
    • Few job opportunities
    • Urban density/high crime rates
    • Few community support services
    • Inadequate health and welfare resources
Educational System
    • Inadequate early childhood education
    • Inadequate prevention programs (early dropouts)
    • Inadequate education quality overall
    • Lack of cultural education, cultural role models
The Family
    • Single-parent homes
    • Economic stress
    • Limited time for supervision
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Disproportionate Minority Confinement: Lessons Learned From Five States OJJDP Bulletin December 1998