EndNotes

1. John J. Wilson and James C. Howell, Comprehensive Strategy for Serious, Violent, and Chronic Juvenile Offenders, Research Report (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, October 1993): 5.

2. Anne L. Stahl, Delinquency Cases in Juvenile Courts, 1996, Fact Sheet #109 (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, May 1999): 1.

3. Harold Hodgkinson, "A Demographer's View," in Marla Higginbotham, ed., What Governors Need to Know about Education (Washington, DC: National Governors' Association, 1995): 54.

4. Wilson and Howell, p. 193.

5. In the 1994-95 school year, the public schools spent $7,163 per pupil (in 1997 constant dollars). See Thomas Snyder and John Wirt, The Condition of Education, 1998 (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, June 1998): 58.

6. David W. Roush, Juvenile Detention Training Needs Assessment, Research Report (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, April 1996): 4.

7. See Sharing Information: A Guide to the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act and Participation in Juvenile Justice Programs (NCJ 163705, June 1997); A Guide to the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (Fact Sheet #78, May 1998); and Information Sharing and the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (Fact Sheet #39, July 1996); available from the Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse (write JJC, P.O. Box 6000, Rockville, MD 20849-6000; phone 800-638-8736; or e-mail puborder@ncjrs.org)

8. David M. Altschuler and Troy L. Armstrong, Intensive Aftercare for High-Risk Juveniles: Policies and Procedures, Program Summary (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, September 1994): 4.

9. See Reintegrating Juvenile Offenders Into the Community: OJJDP's Intensive Community-Based Aftercare Demonstration Program, Research Preview (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice, December 1998): 2.

10. David M. Altschuler and Troy L. Armstrong, "Aftercare Not Afterthought: Testing the IAP Model," Juvenile Justice III (December 1996): 16.

11. Paul E. Barton and Richard J. Coley, Captive Students: Education and Training in America's Prisons (Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service, 1996).

12. See Effective Practices in Juvenile Correctional Education: A Study of the Literature and Research 1980-1992 (NCJ 150066, 1994), available from the Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse (write JJC, P.O. Box 6000, Rockville, MD 20849-6000; phone 800-638-8736; or e-mail puborder@ncjrs.org).

13. Robert J. Gemignani, Juvenile Correctional Education: A Time for Change, OJJDP Update on Research (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, October 1994): 2.

14. Jessica Portner, "Jailed Youths Get Shortchanged on Education," Education Week, October 2, 1996.

15. Gemignani, p. 2.

16. Information for this section was developed by Melissa C. Caudle in "Returning to School from Incarceration," School Safety Update (Westlake Village, CA: National School Safety Center, February 1996): 1-4.

17. Gun-Free Schools Act of 1994, 20 U.S.C. Section 8921 (1994).

18. Joseph P. Tierney, Jean Baldwin, and Nancy L. Resch, Making A Difference: An Impact Study of Big Brothers/Big Sisters (Philadelphia, PA: Public/Private Ventures, November 1995).

19. Jean B. Grossman and Eileen M. Garry, Mentoring—A Proven Delinquency Prevention Strategy, Bulletin (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, April 1997).

20. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 1998 Report to Congress: Juvenile Mentoring Program (JUMP), Program Report. (Washington DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, December 1998).

21. Kim Frentz, "Pairing Juvenile Offenders with Volunteer Advocates," School Safety Update (Westlake Village, CA: National School Safety Center, April 1997): 1-3.

22. Megan Clouser, "School-based Juvenile Probation: Everyone Benefits," School Safety Update (Westlake Village, CA: National School Safety Center, December 1995): 1-4, reprinted with permission from Pennsylvania Progress, March 1995, Vol. 2, No. 1.

23. Altschuler and Armstrong, Intensive Aftercare for High-Risk Juveniles: Policies and Procedures, p. 7.

Acknowledgments

Ronald D. Stephens, Ph.D., is Executive Director and June Lane Arnette is Associate Director of the National School Safety Center (NSSC) in Westlake Village, CA.


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From the Courthouse to the Schoolhouse: Making Successful Transitions Juvenile Justice Bulletin February 2000