The quantitative results of a large number of studies were
synthesized using meta-analysis procedures. The 66 studies examined here
were drawn from Lipsey and Derzon's bibliography (1998) and supplemented
by research reports provided by OJJDP Study Group members and analyses
of the Seattle Social Development Project longitudinal data set. The studies
selected for this review met the following six criteria:
- Subjects were juveniles living in their community (i.e., they were
not incarcerated) when they were first assessed.
- Subjects were not chosen for having committed prior criminal or violent
- Studies measured interpersonal physical violence or acts resulting
in physical injury or threat of physical injury to another person, excluding
- Studies identified a modifiable indicator of a meaningful predictor
or risk factor. Studies of interactions between multiple risk factors
were excluded, as were discussions of race and gender, as predictors
- The study design was longitudinal, with results based on prospective
or retrospective data so that exposure to risk factors preceded violence.
- Individual subjects served as the unit of analysis for both independent
and dependent variables.
of Youth Violence
Justice Bulletin April 2000