Endnotes1. In 1997, there were 136,000 arrests of persons under age 18 for vandalism (Snyder and Sickmund, 1999); during the 1990–99 reporting period, juvenile arrests for vandalism decreased for boys but increased for girls (Snyder, 2000).
2. Of the 299 inmates, 16 percent were female and 11.9 percent were ages 15 to 19 (the remaining 88.1 percent were older than 19). Of the 308 undergraduates, 57.1 percent were female.
3. Kazdin and Esveldt-Dawson reported that responses to the cruelty to animals item were positively correlated (r=0.46, p<0.001) with the IAB total score. Cruelty to animals scores were significantly higher for CD-diagnosed than for non-CD-diagnosed boys and girls, ages 6–13, who were inpatients at a psychiatric facility (F[1,256] = 8.44, p<0.01).
4. Randolf (1999) suggested that cruelty to animals also may be one of the core symptoms of attachment disorders (see also Magid and McKelvey, 1987).
5. It is interesting to note that enuresis (bedwetting) was not significantly related to any of the three forms of recidivism. Bedwetting has been included in the so-called “triad” of symptoms (with cruelty to animals and firesetting) as a possible predictor of serious violence. Research has been inconclusive about the triad’s predictive value (Barnett and Spitzer, 1994; Lockwood and Ascione, 1998:245–246).
6. Thus, some domestic violence victims and their children may remain with a batterer because they have no one to care for their pets if the victim and children enter a domestic violence shelter. In response, programs to shelter pets of domestic violence victims have been and continue to be established across the United States and Canada (Ascione, 2000a). The increasing availability of these pet-sheltering programs will benefit battered women and their children because helping mothers achieve safety may be one of the best ways to ensure the safety of their children (Jacobsen, 2000).