Related Reading

Selected OJJDP publications related to youth gangs are listed below. To view or download the publications online, go to OJJDP’s Web site at Publications may also be ordered from the Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse at 800–851–3420, 410–792–4358 (fax), or

A comprehensive bibliography of gang literature is available online at

A Comprehensive Response to America’s Youth Gang Problem (Fact Sheet). March 1997. 2 pp. FS 9640. Presents an overview of OJJDP’s response to gang problems.

Early Precursors of Gang Membership: A Study of Seattle Youth (Youth Gang Series Bulletin). December 2001. 6 pp. NCJ 190106. Analyzes Seattle Social Development Project data on the relationship between risk factors present at ages 10 to 12 and the likelihood of joining a gang between ages 13 and 18.

Female Gangs: A Focus on Research (Youth Gang Series Bulletin). March 2001. 12 pp. NCJ 186159. Summarizes past and present research on female gangs and tracks the rise in the number of female gangs and the increased public recognition of female gang involvement as a significant social problem.

Gang Members and Delinquent Behavior (Youth Development Series Bulletin). June 1997. 6 pp. NCJ 165154. Presents findings from the Rochester Youth Development Study concerning what portion of delinquency in American society can be attributed to gang members.

Gang Members on the Move (Youth Gang Series Bulletin). October 1998. NCJ 171153. Examines whether gang migration has been a major influence in the proliferation of gangs.

Gang Membership, Delinquent Peers, and Delinquent Behavior (Youth Gang Series Bulletin). October 1998. NCJ 171119. Describes the findings of OJJDP-funded longitudinal studies of juveniles in Seattle, WA, and Rochester, NY, addressing the question of whether gang membership contributes to delinquency above and beyond the influence of associating with delinquent peers.

The Growth of Youth Gang Problems in the United States: 1970–98 (Report). April 2001. 148 pp. NCJ 181868. Presents a comprehensive study of the growth of youth gang problems in the United States from 1970 to 1998.

Highlights of the 1999 National Youth Gang Survey (Fact Sheet). November 2000. 2 pp. FS 200020. Presents key findings of the 1999 National Youth Gang Survey, which is the fifth annual gang survey conducted by the National Youth Gang Center. Similar Fact Sheets are also available for the 1995–98 surveys.

Hybrid and Other Modern Gangs (Youth Gang Series Bulletin). December 2001. 8 pp. NCJ 189916. Focuses on the nature of hybrid gangs, whose customs are clearly distinguished from the practices of more traditional gangs, and draws on survey data, research findings, and field reports to detail these critical differences.

Implementing the OJJDP Comprehensive Gang Model (Fact Sheet). July 1999. 2 pp. FS 99112. Provides a preview of gang intervention projects in five demonstration sites (Mesa, AZ; Tucson, AZ; Riverside, CA; Bloomington, IL; and San Antonio, TX) implementing the OJJDP Comprehensive Gang Model to reduce gang crime and violence.

National Youth Gang Center (Fact Sheet). August 1995. 2 pp. FS 9528. Presents an overview of the OJJDP-funded National Youth Gang Center’s mission and activities.

1998 National Youth Gang Survey (Summary). November 2000. 84 pp. NCJ 183109. Presents detailed findings of the 1998 National Youth Gang Survey, including statistics on number and locations of gangs, member demographics, gang involvement in crime and drugs, and antigang task force activity. Similar publications are also available for the 1995–97 surveys.

Preventing Adolescent Gang Involvement (Youth Gang Series Bulletin). September 2000. 12 pp. NCJ 182210. Provides information on the history of American youth gangs, current knowledge about gangs, research examining risk factors associated with gang membership, and prevention and intervention strategies and programs.

Vietnamese Youth Gang Involvement (Fact Sheet). February 2000. 2 pp. FS 200001. Summarizes findings from a study of factors related to gang involvement by Vietnamese American youth.

Youth Gang Homicides in the 1990’s (Fact Sheet). March 2001. 2 pp. FS 200103. Discusses the results of a study of youth gang homicides in U.S. cities in the 1990s, which was conducted by OJJDP’s National Youth Gang Center.

Youth Gang Programs and Strategies (Summary). August 2000. 96 pp. NCJ 171154. Describes programs and strategies used to disrupt gangs and divert youth from them, discusses related evaluations and national assessments, and provides information to assist practitioners and administrators in designing and implementing such programs and strategies.

Youth Gang Drug Trafficking (Youth Gang Series Bulletin). December 1999. 12 pp. NCJ 178282. Presents nationally representative data on the extent and nature of youth gang involvement in drug trafficking, based on results from the 1996 National Youth Gang Survey.

Youth Gangs: An Overview (Youth Gang Series Bulletin). August 1998. 20 pp. NCJ 167249. Provides an overview of the problems that youth gangs pose, identifies the differences between youth gangs and adult criminal organizations, examines the risk factors that lead to youth gang membership, and presents promising strategies being used to curb youth gang involvement.

Youth Gangs (Fact Sheet). December 1997. 2 pp. FS 9772. Presents an overview of gang-related facts and issues.

The Youth Gangs, Drugs, and Violence Connection (Youth Gang Series Bulletin). January 1999. 12 pp. NCJ 171152. Examines the interrelationship of youth gangs, drugs, and violence.

Youth Gangs in Schools (Youth Gang Series Bulletin). August 2000. 8 pp. NCJ 183015. Analyzes gang-related data from the 1995 School Crime Supplements, including information on characteristics of gangs in schools, reasons for greater gang prevalence in some schools, and the impact of gangs on victimization at school.

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Modern-Day Youth Gangs Juvenile Justice Bulletin June 2002