Endnotes

1 "Indian country" is defined in 18 U.S.C. § 1151 as including (1) land within Indian reservations, (2) dependent Indian communities, and (3) Indian allotments.

2 Public Law 280 is a federal statute that grants a state in which an Indian community is located authority over criminal and civil matters on that land.

3 For the remainder of this Bulletin, “respondents” refers only to those communities reporting youth gang activity in 2000.

4 Communities reporting “do not know” are presented here because of their appreciable number. Unless noted elsewhere in this Bulletin, “do not know” responses are excluded from the analysis.

5 “Jurisdiction” is defined as the service area of the responding law enforcement agency.

6 The mean population of Indian communities for which population data were available was used to determine the population split for larger and smaller communities.

7 Survey questions regarding demographic data about gang members required respondents to estimate the percentage of gang members who met certain criteria. Ideally, the percentages would be weighted by the total number of gang members reported in a community to reflect differences in membership across the reporting communities. Given the available data, the results in this Bulletin are based on unweighted data because of the significant reduction in eligible cases for weighting procedures. Caution must be exercised when interpreting the results, and any comparisons with studies where results are based on weighted data must be done with these concerns in mind. However, comparing results derived from unweighted data with those derived from weighted data in this survey demonstrates only slight variation, providing confidence in the findings reported here.

8 To reflect differences in membership across the reporting jurisdictions, data from the national and comparison samples are weighted by the total number of gang members reported in a community.

9 The survey did not specify the influence of a large nearby city. Therefore, respondents might have interpreted the question as general influence of large urban areas, not specifically those located near their community. For example, one respondent from a community located almost 400 miles from the nearest city reported the community’s gang problem was heavily influenced by gang activity in large cities. A closer look at Indian country communities that reported little or no influence from city gang activity, despite close proximity to cities, might provide useful information about the factors that enable those communities to prevent gang activity from influencing local youth and the community.

10 For more information about the G.R.E.A.T. program in Indian country, visit www.naclubs.org/main/great.shtml.


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Youth Gangs in Indian Country OJJDP Bulletin March 2004