1. Michael Shader, Ph.D., is a Social Science Program Specialist in the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's (OJJDP's) Research and Program Development Division.
2. Similar conclusions could be drawn in the juvenile justice field regarding delinquent behavior.
3. For a complete review of risk factors, see chapter 3 in Juvenile Crime, Juvenile Justice (McCord, Widom, and Crowell, 2001).
4. Grade retention occurs when teachers hold students back a grade level at the end of the school year.