1. See 1995 National Youth Gang Survey (National Youth Gang Center, 1997) for a detailed explanation of the methodology used to compile the sample for the 1995 survey.
2. A list of cities and their populations was obtained from the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. A list of agencies whose jurisdictions are considered suburban counties and rural counties was obtained from Crime in the United States, 1994: Uniform Crime Reports, Federal Bureau of Investigation, 1995, pp. 167189. The terms large cities and small cities were assigned to the two groups of cities used in the sample for ease of reference. However, most cities in the large cities group have populations under 100,000 and may not be considered large cities by most observers.
3. For its own purposes, the Bureau of the Census sometimes divides cities and towns into segments. However, for the purposes of this survey, the entire population of each city and town was used.
4. Another possibility, of course, is an increase in older juveniles and young adults joining gangs. This is very unlikely, however, because almost all youth who join gangs do so in the adolescent period, by age 15 (Battin et al., 1998).
5. The survey did not measure involvement in other kinds of illegal activity.