clear Appendix B: OJJDP Publications and Products From the Research Division, August 1999 to the Present

The publications listed below are available free of charge through OJJDP’s Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse by calling 800–638–8736, visiting OJJDP’s Web site at, or e-mailing the Clearinghouse at


1998 National Youth Gang Survey (Summary). 2000. 84 pp. NCJ 183109.

Presents findings of the 1998 National Youth Gang Survey, the fourth in a series of annual surveys administered by the National Youth Gang Center. To facilitate comparative analyses, the 1998 survey used the same nationally representative sample of law enforcement agencies as its 1996 and 1997 predecessors. Survey results indicate that despite declines from previous years, youth gangs remain a serious problem. In 1998, an estimated 780,200 gang members were active in 28,700 youth gangs in 4,463 jurisdictions nationwide. The Summary provides analysis and statistics on number and locations of gangs; member demographics (age, sex, and race/ ethnicity); gang involvement in crime and drugs; and antigang task force activity. Copies of the National Youth Gang Survey for previous years also are available.

1999 Report to Congress: Title V Incentive Grants for Local Delinquency Prevention Programs (Report). 2000. 55 pp. NCJ 182677.

Presents the efforts and accomplishments of grant activities funded under Title V Incentive Grants for Local Delinquency Prevention Programs. Under this program, OJJDP provides the framework, tools, and funding for States and communities to establish comprehensive, community-based strategies that deter youth from becoming involved in the juvenile justice system. The Report begins with a review of current trends in juvenile justice and the role of the Title V grants program in preventing and controlling youth problem behaviors. The Report goes on to describe the allocation of Title V resources to participating States and communities and examine the impact the program has had in changing community norms related to collaboration and systems-level change. The Report also focuses on the coordination of State and Federal efforts to support local delinquency prevention and reviews OJJDP’s commitment to delinquency prevention and the promise it holds for moving toward a healthier, safer future for America’s children, youth, and families. Reports for previous years also are available.

America’s Children: Key National Indicators of Well-Being 2000 (Report). 2000. 114 pp. NCJ 186147.

Provides a comprehensive look at critical aspects of child well-being, such as economic security, health, behavior, social environment, and education. The Report, the fourth annual synthesis of information on the status of the Nation’s children, presents 23 key indicators of the well-being of children. The Report was compiled by the Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, a consortium of 20 Federal agencies, including the U.S. Departments of Justice and Education, that gather data on children. (Not available online. Call or e-mail the Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse.)

Annual Report on School Safety, 1999 (Report). 2000. 66 pp. NCJ 181757.

Presents a description of the nature and extent of crime and violence on school property. The Report, prepared jointly by the U.S. Departments of Education and Justice, examines data on homicides and suicides at school, injuries at school, crimes against students, crimes against teachers, weapons at school, the consequences of bringing firearms to school, and student perceptions of school safety. The Report highlights 54 communities that have implemented a collaborative, problem-solving model to prevent school violence; presents summary information on effective programs; and lists resources for more information about school safety and crime issues.

Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement Databook (Fact Sheet). 2000. 2 pp. FS 200008.

Provides information on the Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement (CJRP) Databook. This online interactive data dissemination tool was developed for OJJDP by the National Center for Juvenile Justice. It enables users to access CJRP data quickly and easily without using statistical analysis software. CJRP is a comprehensive, manageable, and reliable statistical series providing information about juvenile offenders in residential placement. The Databook can address a wide variety of questions about juvenile detention, corrections, and placement.

Challenging the Myths (Bulletin). 2000. 8 pp. NCJ 178993.

Evaluates the validity of the “superpredator” theory, which concluded that a new breed of violent juveniles was emerging in the early 1990s and predicted a wave of violent juvenile crime that would continue into the next decade. This Bulletin examines juvenile crime statistics, concludes that recent data do not support the superpredator theory, and offers alternative explanations of recent trends in juvenile crime. The Bulletin is part of the 1999 National Report Series, which highlights selected themes at the forefront of juvenile justice policymaking and extracts relevant National Report sections (including selected graphs and tables).

Characteristics of Crimes Against Juveniles (Bulletin). 2000. 12 pp. NCJ 179034.

Examines data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) on the characteristics of crimes committed against juveniles. Part of the Crimes Against Children Series, this Bulletin analyzes 1997 NIBRS data (collected from 12 States) for crimes such as assault, kidnaping, robbery, and sexual assault. The Bulletin finds that juveniles make up 12 percent of all crime victims known to police, including 71 percent of all sex crime victims and 38 percent of all kidnaping victims. Simple assault is the most commonly reported crime against juveniles.

Children as Victims (Bulletin). 2000. 24 pp. NCJ 180753.

Presents an overview of statistics on juveniles as victims of crimes and maltreatment. The Bulletin examines recent trends in violent crimes against children and youth (murder, assault, and sexual assault), analyzes patterns of victimization in cases of child abuse and neglect, and summarizes data on missing children. The Bulletin notes that juveniles are twice as likely as adults to be victims of serious violent crime and that children with a history of maltreatment are at increased risk for delinquency. The Bulletin is part of the 1999 National Report Series, which highlights selected themes at the forefront of juvenile justice policymaking and extracts relevant National Report sections (including selected graphs and tables).

Comprehensive Responses to Youth at Risk: Interim Findings From the SafeFutures Initiative (Summary). 2000. 96 pp. NCJ 183841.

Presents the findings from an evaluation of the first 3 years of the SafeFutures initiative in six sites—Boston, MA; Contra Costa County, CA; Fort Belknap, MT; Imperial County, CA; Seattle, WA; and St. Louis, MO. The Summary describes the SafeFutures initiative, its goals, and its theoretical foundation; includes an overview of the demonstration sites; discusses each site’s management structure for SafeFutures; examines each of the nine SafeFutures components; and provides examples of local programs addressing each component. The examples were chosen to illustrate the variety of programs implemented and are not intended to serve as an exhaustive inventory of SafeFutures programming.

Co-occurrence of Delinquency and Other Problem Behaviors (Bulletin). 2000. 8 pp. NCJ 182211.

Provides information on the extent of overlap between delinquency and other problem behaviors. Using data from the first 3 years of OJJDP’s Program of Research on the Causes and Correlates of Delinquency, this Youth Development Series Bulletin examines the co-occurrence of serious delinquency with specific problem areas: school behavior, drug use, mental health, and combinations of these behaviors. Preliminary findings show that a large proportion of serious delinquents are not involved in persistent drug use, nor do they have persistent school or mental health problems; the problem that co-occurs most frequently with serious delinquency is drug use; and, for males, as the number of problem behaviors other than delinquency increases, so does the likelihood that an individual will be a serious delinquent.

Counting America’s Youth: Easy Access to Population Data (Fact Sheet). 2000. 2 pp. FS 200014.

Describes Easy Access to Juvenile Populations, a new online interactive data dissemination tool that provides demographic information about U.S. juveniles. A component of OJJDP’s online Statistical Briefing Book, the data site enables users to view, print, and download juvenile population estimates according to age, sex, race, and Hispanic ethnicity. Using estimates provided by the U.S. Bureau of the Census, Easy Access to Juvenile Populations provides detailed tables of population estimates for 1990 and 1998 for the entire United States, each State, and each of the Nation’s 3,141 counties.

Delinquency Cases in Juvenile Courts, 1997 (Fact Sheet). 2000. 2 pp. FS 200004.

Provides data on the estimated 1,755,100 delinquency cases processed in juvenile courts in the United States in 1997. The number of these cases handled by juvenile courts increased 48 percent between 1988 and 1997. During this time period, the number of drug law violation cases increased 125 percent, person offense cases increased 97 percent, public order offense cases increased 67 percent, and property offense cases increased 19 percent. The estimates provided in this Fact Sheet are based on data from more than 1,900 jurisdictions containing nearly 70 percent of the U.S. juvenile population (youth age 10 through the upper age of original juvenile court jurisdiction in each State).

Delinquency Cases Waived to Criminal Court, 1988–1997 (Fact Sheet). 2000. 2 pp. FS 200002.

Presents estimates of the number of cases transferred from juvenile court to criminal court through judicial waiver between 1988 and 1997. These estimates are based on data from more than 1,900 jurisdictions representing nearly 70 percent of the U.S. juvenile population. In 1997, U.S. courts with juvenile jurisdiction handled over 1.7 million delinquency cases. More than half of these cases were handled formally (that is, a petition was filed requesting an adjudication or waiver hearing). In 1997, waivers to criminal court represented less than 1 percent of the formally processed delinquency caseload.

Detention in Delinquency Cases, 1988–1997 (Fact Sheet). 2000. 2 pp. FS 200017.

Provides statistical information on the increased number of delinquency cases handled by juvenile courts and the proportion of delinquency cases detained. Between 1988 and 1997, the profile of the national detention population shifted, with a greater proportion of youth charged with person offenses and a greater proportion of females and of black youth in the detention population. The increase in number of very young offenders in juvenile detention centers has placed new demands on these institutions. The previous Fact Sheet, Detention in Delinquency Cases, 1987–1996, also is available.

Effective Intervention for Serious Juvenile Offenders (Bulletin). 2000. 8 pp. NCJ 181201.

Presents the results of a meta-analysis (a systematic synthesis of quantitative research results) that posed two questions: whether intervention programs can reduce recidivism rates among serious delinquents and, if so, what types of programs are most effective. This Bulletin describes the procedures used to select studies for the meta-analysis, presents the methods of analysis used to answer the above questions, and discusses effective interventions for noninstitutionalized and institutionalized juvenile offenders.

Family Disruption and Delinquency (Bulletin). 1999. 6 pp. NCJ 178285.

Examines the impact that multiple changes in family structure have on an adolescent’s risk of serious problem behavior. Research teams in three cities— Rochester, NY; Denver, CO; and Pittsburgh, PA—interviewed 4,000 youth and their caretakers to analyze the prevalence of delinquent behaviors and drug use and the number of family transitions the youth had experienced. The researchers found that the youth had faced a substantial number of family transitions, which can result in decreased financial security and increased stress and conflict. In Rochester and Denver, the number of transitions had a significant effect on delinquency and drug use; the Pittsburgh data showed the same trend, although not at a statistically significant level.

Female Delinquency Cases, 1997 (Fact Sheet). 2000. 2 pp. FS 200016.

Describes the types of offenses committed by juvenile female offenders and provides data on detention, intake decisions, waiver to criminal court, and adjudication and disposition. Juvenile courts processed an estimated 1,755,100 delinquency cases in 1997, nearly one-fourth (23 percent) of which involved a female offender, compared with 19 percent in 1988. Between 1988 and 1997, the number of delinquency cases involving females increased 83 percent.

Fighting Juvenile Gun Violence (Bulletin). 2000. 12 pp. NCJ 182679.

Describes the implementation of OJJDP’s Partnerships To Reduce Juvenile Gun Violence Program at demonstration sites in Baton Rouge and Shreveport, LA; Oakland, CA; and Syracuse, NY. The program seeks to increase the effectiveness of existing gun violence strategies by enhancing and coordinating prevention, intervention, and suppression efforts and strengthening community links. This Bulletin identifies the program’s goals, outlines strategies the demonstration sites needed to achieve those goals, describes the role of the national evaluation team in providing technical assistance and helping the sites develop comprehensive plans, and details each site’s approach to gun violence. The Bulletin also explains what has been learned after implementation and provides program outcomes.

The High/Scope Perry Preschool Project (Bulletin). 2000. 8 pp. NCJ 181725.

Discusses the High/Scope Perry Preschool Project, an early childhood intervention program that has been in operation for almost 40 years. The more the field learns about risk factors for delinquency, the more obvious it is that effective prevention programs targeting children at risk can provide benefits beyond their costs. This Bulletin reviews the results to date from an ongoing, well-designed study of the program, presents two positive cost-benefit analyses, and examines the implications for future policy decisions.

Highlights of the 1999 National Youth Gang Survey (Fact Sheet). 2000. 2 pp. FS 200020.

Summarizes findings of the 1999 National Youth Gang Survey, the fifth annual gang survey conducted since 1995 by the National Youth Gang Center. The Fact Sheet summarizes data on the percentage of jurisdictions reporting active youth gangs in 1999; the reported numbers of youth gangs and gang members; the age, race/ethnicity, and social class of gang members; the proportions of gang members who were involved in specific types of crimes and who were migrants from other jurisdictions; and the percentage of youth gangs that were considered drug gangs. Facts Sheets that provide highlights of the 1995, 1996, 1997, and 1998 National Youth Gang Center surveys also are available.

Implementation of the Intensive Community-Based Aftercare Program (Bulletin). 2000. 20 pp. NCJ 181464.

Provides an overview of the Intensive Aftercare Program (IAP) model—the goal of which is to reduce recidivism among high-risk juvenile parolees—and describes its implementation in participating sites. The IAP model posits that effective intervention with serious, chronic juvenile offenders requires not only intensive supervision and services after institutional release, but also a focus on reintegration during incarceration and a highly structured and gradual transition process that bridges institutionalization and aftercare. The Bulletin also assesses the extent to which implementation has been successful, both overall and with respect to the specific components, and identifies factors that facilitated or impeded program implementation.

Innovative Information on Juvenile Residential Facilities (Fact Sheet). 2000. 2 pp. FS 200011.

Describes the first Juvenile Residential Facility Census (JRFC), an effort designed to collect information about the facilities in which juvenile offenders are held. JRFC will gather information on the health care, education, substance abuse treatment, and mental health treatment provided to youth in these facilities. The census will also indicate the use of screenings or tests conducted to determine counseling, education, health, or substance abuse needs and will examine prominent issues about conditions of confinement, including the restraint of youth and improper absences from the facility.

Juvenile Arrests 1999 (Bulletin). 2000. 12 pp. NCJ 185236.

Provides a summary and analysis of national and State juvenile arrest data reported in the FBI’s October 2000 report, Crime in the United States, 1999. After peaking in 1994, juvenile violent crime arrests, which had increased substantially since the late 1980s, declined dramatically. The juvenile arrest rate for violent crime in 1999 was 36 percent below its peak in 1994. From 1993 to 1999, the juvenile arrest rate for murder decreased 68 percent—to its lowest level since the 1960s. The number of juvenile arrests has declined in every violent crime category despite an 8-percent growth in the juvenile population from 1993 to 1999. Juvenile Arrests Bulletins also are available for 1995, 1996, 1997, and 1998.

Juvenile Court Placement of Adjudicated Youth (Fact Sheet). 2000. 2 pp. FS 200015.

This Fact Sheet is part of the Residential Placement Series and reports out-of-home placements for youth adjudicated by courts as delinquent offenders from 1988 to 1997. Residential placements—which include placements in residential treatment centers, juvenile corrections facilities, foster homes, and group homes—are among the types of dispositions used by juvenile courts. The number of adjudicated cases resulting in out-of-home placement rose from 104,800 in 1988 to 163,200 in 1997. However, from 1988 to 1997, adjudicated cases involving placement increased least for white youth (52 percent), compared with black youth (60 percent) and youth of other races (69 percent).

Juvenile Court Statistics 1997 (Report). 2000. 120 pp. NCJ 180864.

Profiles more than 1.7 million delinquency cases and 158,000 status offense cases handled by the juvenile courts in 1997. Detailed information is provided on the offenses involved, referral sources, detention practices, and case dispositions. This Report, the 71st in the Juvenile Court Statistics Series, also includes demographic characteristics of offending juveniles and describes various trends since 1988. The national caseload estimates for 1997 contained in this Report were based on approximately 917,400 automated case records plus court-level statistics summarizing nearly 217,400 additional cases. Data were contributed to the National Juvenile Court Data Archive by nearly 2,000 courts (with jurisdiction over 71 percent of the juvenile population). The analysis includes 88 tables, 29 figures, and an appendix with county- and State-level case statistics from 1997. Juvenile Court Statistics for previous years also are available.

Juvenile Delinquency Probation Caseload, 1988–1997 (Fact Sheet). 2000. 2 pp. FS 200019.

Presents findings on the juvenile delinquency probation caseload that are based on national data on delinquency cases processed by juvenile courts from 1988 through 1997. The national estimates were generated using information contributed to the National Juvenile Court Data Archive. As set forth in this Fact Sheet, courts with juvenile jurisdiction handled nearly 1.8 million delinquency cases in 1997. Probation supervision was the most severe disposition in almost 37 percent (645,600) of all delinquency cases. The number of cases placed on probation grew 48 percent between 1988 and 1997. During that time, the overall delinquency caseload also increased 48 percent.

Juvenile Justice: A Century of Change (Bulletin). 1999. 20 pp. NCJ 178995.

Reviews developments in juvenile justice system structure and process from the establishment of the Nation’s first juvenile court in 1899 to the present. This Bulletin presents an overview of the history of juvenile justice, discusses U.S. Supreme Court decisions that have shaped the modern system, compares the juvenile and criminal justice systems, describes current case processing, and summarizes changes States have made with regard to juvenile court jurisdictional authority, sentencing, and confidentiality. The Bulletin is part of the 1999 National Report Series, which highlights selected themes at the fore-front of juvenile justice policymaking and extracts relevant National Report sections.

Juvenile Mentoring Program: A Progress Review (Bulletin). 2000. 8 pp. NCJ 182209.

Describes OJJDP’s Juvenile Mentoring Program (JUMP), which provides one-to-one mentoring for youth at risk of delinquency, gang involvement, educational failure, or dropping out of school. Youth mentoring programs provide a forum in which volunteer adult mentors develop supportive relationships with at-risk youth to help them through childhood and adolescence. Currently, there are 164 JUMP projects in 41 States, the District of Columbia, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Information on JUMP projects is collected through an automated JUMP management information system, intensive case studies, and extensive communication with grantee agencies.

Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 1999 National Report (Report). 1999. 232 pp. NCJ 178257.

Presents comprehensive information on the juvenile justice system and juvenile crime, violence, and victimization. This OJJDP National Report brings together the latest available statistics from a variety of sources and includes numerous tables, graphs, and maps, accompanied by analyses in clear, nontechnical language. The Report provides baseline information on juvenile population trends; patterns of juvenile victimization, including homicide, suicide, and maltreatment; the nature and extent of juvenile offending, including data on arrest rates, antisocial behavior, and juveniles in custody; and the structure, procedures, and activities of the juvenile justice system, including law enforcement agencies, courts, and corrections. This Report updates information originally presented in Juvenile Offenders and Victims: A National Report, the benchmark publication issued in 1995. A subject index is included.

Juvenile Transfers to Criminal Court in the 1990’s: Lessons Learned From Four Studies (Summary). 2000. 68 pp. NCJ 181301.

Presents the findings of four studies of juvenile transfers to criminal court conducted by the National Center for Juvenile Justice. The studies, conducted in Pennsylvania, South Carolina, and Utah, addressed three basic research issues: the criteria used in transfer decisions, changes in transfer decisionmaking criteria during the 1980s and 1990s over and above changes in legislation, and the impact of new legislation that excludes additional offenders from juvenile court jurisdiction. The Summary presents an overview of each study and outlines key findings. Background on transfer mechanisms, past research, and study methodology is also provided.

Juvenile Vandalism, 1997 (Fact Sheet). 2000. 2 pp. FS 200010.

Presents statistics on juvenile vandalism in 1997, based on findings of the FBI’s Uniform Crime Reporting Program. The Fact Sheet reports that in 1997, law enforcement agencies made approximately 136,500 arrests of persons under age 18 for vandalism and that vandalism arrests peak at age 16. Unlike most offenses, vandalism is an offense for which the racial distribution of youth arrested reflects their profile in the general population. The Fact Sheet also notes that formal court processing of juvenile vandalism cases increased between 1988 and 1997.

Juvenile Victims of Property Crimes (Bulletin). 2000. 12 pp. NCJ 184740.

Presents data on juvenile victims of property crimes. Part of OJJDP’s Crimes Against Children Bulletin Series, this Bulletin describes juveniles’ risk for property victimization and the nature of such crimes. Data from the National Crime Victimization Survey and the National Incident-Based Reporting System illustrate that juveniles are at a particularly high risk for victimization through property offenses. In 1997, one in six juveniles ages 12 to 17 was a victim of a property crime—a rate 40 percent higher than the rate for adults. The data also indicate that property crimes against juveniles are seldom reported to the police.

Kidnaping of Juveniles: Patterns From NIBRS (Bulletin). 2000. 8 pp. NCJ 181161.

Examines data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) on kidnaping of juveniles. Part of OJJDP’s Crimes Against Children series, this Bulletin analyzes 1997 NIBRS data (collected from 12 States) on kidnaping that suggest that these crimes can be categorized into three groups based on the identity of the perpetrator: family kidnaping, acquaintance kidnaping, and stranger kidnaping. The Bulletin provides statistical descriptions of these crimes as they relate to factors such as the time of day and location of the incident or the perpetrator’s use of a weapon.

Kids and Guns (Bulletin). 2000. 12 pp. NCJ 178994.

Presents an overview of statistics indicative of the impact of gun availability on the lives of youth. The Bulletin examines data on gun use in homicides committed by and against juveniles, weapons arrest rates, relationship of handgun carrying to other problem behaviors, and firearm-related suicide. The Bulletin notes that the recent decline in firearm-related juvenile homicides and suicides is encouraging and reinforces the need to remain vigilant in keeping weapons out of the hands of children. The Bulletin is part of OJJDP’s 1999 National Report Series, which highlights selected themes at the forefront of juvenile justice policymaking and extracts relevant National Report sections (including selected graphs and tables).

Minorities in the Juvenile Justice System (Bulletin). 1999. 16 pp. NCJ 179007.

Presents information on overrepresentation of minority youth in the juvenile justice system (compared with their proportion in the general population) and focuses on disproportionate confinement of minorities. This Bulletin includes statistics on racial-ethnic makeup of juvenile offenders from arrest, court-processing, and confinement records. The Bulletin notes that there is substantial evidence of widespread disparity in juvenile case processing of minority and nonminority youth and that racial-ethnic differences can occur at all stages of the process. The Bulletin is part of OJJDP’s 1999 National Report Series, which highlights selected themes at the forefront of juvenile justice policymaking and extracts relevant National Report sections (including selected graphs and tables).

Offenders in Juvenile Court, 1997 (Bulletin). 2000. 16 pp. NCJ 181204.

Presents findings from Juvenile Court Statistics 1997, the latest in a series of annual reports on cases handled by U.S. courts with juvenile jurisdiction. Although courts with juvenile jurisdiction handle a variety of cases, including abuse, neglect, adoption, and traffic violations, the Juvenile Court Statistics reports focus on the disposition of delinquency cases and formally processed status offense cases. Juvenile courts in the United States processed nearly 1.8 million delinquency cases in 1997, a 48-percent increase over the number of cases handled in 1988. This Bulletin includes detailed tables and figures on juvenile delinquency cases handled in U.S. courts.

OJJDP Research: Making a Difference for Juveniles (Report). 1999. 55 pp. NCJ 177602.

Summarizes key initiatives undertaken by OJJDP’s Research and Program Development Division in research, evaluation, and statistics from 1996 through 1998. The Report (the first in a series on the activities of the Research Division) provides a review of critical findings on the root causes of juvenile delinquency and negative behavior, highlights some of OJJDP’s innovative research efforts, and explores emerging research on very young offenders, school violence, girls in the juvenile justice system, and other issues. The Research Division’s mission is to generate credible and useful information for improved decisionmaking. Using this information, OJJDP’s other divisions implement model demonstration programs, replicate successful programs, provide training and technical assistance, and inform the public about the nature and extent of juvenile crime and what works to prevent and stop such crime.

Person Offense Cases in Juvenile Court, 1988–1997 (Fact Sheet). 2000. 2 pp. FS 200006.

Provides information on person offense cases handled by juvenile courts from 1988 to 1997. In 1997, U.S. juvenile courts handled an estimated 390,800 delinquency cases in which the most serious charge was an offense against a person. Person offenses include assault, robbery, rape, and homicide. The person offense caseload was 97 percent greater in 1997 than in 1988. Person offense cases accounted for 22 percent of all delinquency cases in 1997, compared with 17 percent in 1988. Fact Sheets providing information on person offense cases handled by juvenile courts for previous years also are available.

Predictors of Youth Violence (Bulletin). 2000. 12 pp. NCJ 179065.

Presents findings of OJJDP’s Study Group on Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders, which conducted a 2-year analysis of data collected by long-term studies of juvenile violence. This Bulletin, part of OJJDP’s series of Bulletins on serious and violent juvenile offenders, describes risk and protective factors for youth violence, including individual, family, school, peer-related, community/neighborhood, and situational factors. It also includes a sidebar that ranks predictors of violent or serious delinquency for age groups 6–11 and 12–14.

Preventing Adolescent Gang Involvement (Bulletin). 2000. 12 pp. NCJ 182210.

Provides information on the history of American youth gangs and current knowledge about gangs. This Bulletin, part of OJJDP’s Youth Gang Series, presents an overview of the research examining risk factors associated with gang membership. It focuses on the following five domains: individual and family demographics, personal attributes, peer group, school, and community. The Bulletin also describes prevention and intervention strategies and programs geared toward gang members and youth at risk of becoming involved in gangs.

Prevention of Serious and Violent Juvenile Offending (Bulletin). 2000. 16 pp. NCJ 178898.

Describes developmental precursors to serious and violent juvenile offending and outlines effective approaches to prevention of such offending. Part of OJJDP’s series on serious and violent juvenile offenders, this Bulletin describes family-, parent-, and child-focused prevention programs and offers examples of well-designed intervention programs. The Bulletin is based on work by OJJDP’s Study Group on Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders, which conducted a 2-year analysis of data collected by long-term studies of juvenile violence.

Race, Ethnicity, and Serious Violent Juvenile Offending (Bulletin). 2000. 8 pp. NCJ 181202.

Discusses racial and ethnic differences in rates of serious and violent offending among juveniles. The Bulletin describes various data sources (justice system records and self-report offending and victimization surveys) and notes their strengths and weaknesses for purposes of identifying racial and ethnic patterns. The Bulletin also summarizes statistics on national trends in juvenile offending by race and ethnicity, discusses research findings on racial and ethnic differences among chronic offenders, and offers various explanations of the patterns observed. Definitions of “race” and “ethnicity” are discussed, and the need for consistency in data comparisons is indicated.

Reintegration, Supervised Release, and Intensive Aftercare (Bulletin). 1999. 24 pp. NCJ 175715.

Examines what has worked and what has not worked in reintegrating juvenile offenders into the community. In the late 1980s, OJJDP began supporting a long-term research and development initiative for an intensive juvenile aftercare model. The Bulletin’s main text describes the intensive aftercare program model, distinguishes it from other models and programs, and analyzes individual intensive aftercare programs. The Bulletin also includes an evaluation of existing aftercare programs, describes studies of these programs, and presents the authors’ conclusions.

Reporting Crimes Against Children (Bulletin). 1999. 8 pp. NCJ 178887.

Presents an analysis of National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) data on reports of crimes against juveniles to police and other authorities (e.g., school officials). The findings presented in this Crimes Against Children Series Bulletin indicate that a majority of juvenile victimizations are not being reported to police or any other authority. Even serious victimizations involving weapons and injury are significantly less likely to be reported when juveniles are the victims than when adults are victimized. The Bulletin focuses on the categories of violent crime (rape and sexual assault, robbery, and assault) and theft included in NCVS data.

Residential Placement of Adjudicated Youth, 1987–1996 (Fact Sheet). 1999. 2 pp. FS 99117.

Provides information on adjudicated delinquency cases that resulted in out-of-home placement from 1987 to 1996. Juvenile courts employ a variety of dispositions for youth adjudicated as delinquent offenders. In 1996, 28 percent of these cases resulted in a disposition ordering out-of-home placement, including placements in residential treatment centers, juvenile correctional facilities, foster homes, and group homes. As set forth in this Fact Sheet, the number of adjudicated cases that resulted in out-of-home placement rose from 105,600 in 1987 to 159,400 in 1996.

School and Community Interventions To Prevent Serious and Violent Offending (Bulletin). 1999. 12 pp. NCJ 177624.

Describes school and community interventions shown to reduce risk factors for drug abuse and serious and violent juvenile offending. Based on findings of OJJDP’s Study Group on Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders, this Bulletin examines five types of school interventions (structured playground activities, behavioral consultation, behavioral monitoring, metal detectors, and schoolwide reorganization) and eight types of community interventions (citizen mobilization, situational prevention, comprehensive citizen intervention, mentoring, afterschool recreation programs, policing strategies, policy changes, and mass media interventions). The Bulletin is part of OJJDP’s series on serious and violent juvenile offenders.

Second Comprehensive Study of Missing Children (Bulletin). 2000. 6 pp. NCJ 179085.

Describes the second National Incidence Studies of Missing, Abducted, Runaway, and Thrownaway Children (NISMART 2), which will measure the incidence of each of eight categories of missing children. The current study will update the findings of NISMART 1, published in 1990. The Bulletin outlines the history and components of both NISMART studies, defines eight categories of missing children, includes a sidebar that describes the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, presents photographs and case details for five missing children, and lists seven planned reports that will be based on NISMART 2 data.

Self-Reported Delinquency by 12-Year-Olds, 1997 (Fact Sheet). 2000. 2 pp. FS 200003.

Presents data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. The first wave of the survey interviewed a nationally representative sample of nearly 9,000 youth who were between the ages of 12 and 16 at the end of 1996. The survey asked youth to report whether they had engaged in a variety of delinquent behaviors or other behaviors that may lead to future delinquency. These youth will be interviewed annually to track changes in these behaviors. This Fact Sheet presents estimates of these self-reported behaviors by the youngest age group—youth who were 12 years old at the end of 1996.

State Custody Rates, 1997 (Bulletin). 2000. 4 pp. NCJ 183108.

Presents State-by-State statistics on custody rates for juvenile delinquents and status offenders held in public and private facilities. Using Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement (CJRP) findings for 1997, the Bulletin compares the role of private facilities, where most status offenders are held, with that of public facilities, where most delinquent offenders are detained. State rankings based solely on custody rates for delinquents in public facilities differ from those based on rates for all juveniles in both public and private facilities. The detailed data provided in this Bulletin enable readers to better understand the role that public and private custodial facilities play in their own States and across the Nation.

A Study of Juvenile Transfers to Criminal Court in Florida (Fact Sheet). 1999. 2 pp. FS 99113.

Provides a brief overview of the four research components of Florida’s study on juvenile transfers to criminal court. The study, funded by OJJDP since 1995, is assessing the impact of transfer laws and practices, including the effectiveness of using transfer as a crime control strategy. Florida leads the Nation in juvenile transfers to criminal court. The number of transfers has come to rival the number of residential placement dispositions for juvenile offenders in Florida. Therefore, the State is an ideal policy laboratory in which to study questions about transfer.

Teen Courts: A Focus on Research (Bulletin). 2000. 16 pp. NCJ 183472.

Presents the results of a national survey of teen courts conducted as part of OJJDP’s Evaluation of Teen Courts Project by researchers at The Urban Institute. Developed as an alternative to the traditional juvenile court system for younger and less serious offenders, teen courts operate on the premise that the judgment of a juvenile offender’s peers may have a greater impact than the decisions of adult authority figures. The teen court concept has gained popularity in recent years as juvenile courts have had to deal with increased numbers of serious, violent, and chronic juvenile offenders. This Bulletin examines several teen court evaluations but cautions that empirical data are needed to fully evaluate the effectiveness of this intervention.

Teen Courts in the United States: A Profile of Current Programs (Fact Sheet). 1999. 2 pp. FS 99118.

Provides information on the results of a survey of teen courts, which have become a popular intervention for relatively young and usually first-time offenders. The number of teen courts nationwide grew from an estimated 50 programs in 1991 to between 400 and 500 programs in 1998. To document their characteristics and effectiveness, OJJDP funded an evaluation of these courts in 1998. As set forth in this Fact Sheet, most teen courts have relatively small caseloads (48 percent indicated that they received fewer than 100 referrals per year) and teen courts nationwide handled approximately 65,000 cases in 1998.

Teenage Fatherhood and Delinquent Behavior (Bulletin). 2000. 8 pp. NCJ 178899.

Presents findings from the Rochester Youth Development Study and the Pittsburgh Youth Study on risk factors for teenage paternity, specifically the role of delinquency in early fatherhood. Both studies concluded that early delinquency is a highly significant risk factor for becoming a teen father. In addition, the Rochester study reported that the possibility of teen paternity rises dramatically as risk factors accumulate, and the Pittsburgh study found that teen fatherhood may be followed by greater involvement in delinquency. The Bulletin includes a list of resources for teen fathers.

Vietnamese Youth Gang Involvement (Fact Sheet). 2000. 2 pp. FS 200001.

This Fact Sheet describes an OJJDP-funded study in the city of Westminster in Orange County, CA. Westminster’s study examined factors related to gang involvement by Vietnamese American youth. It is one of only a few systematic quantitative studies on this topic. This Fact Sheet summarizes findings from the study’s final report, Cultural Explanations for Vietnamese Youth Involvement in Street Gangs.

Violence After School (Bulletin). 1999. 8 pp. NCJ 178992.

Presents information on temporal patterns (e.g., time of day and school versus nonschool day) of violent crimes committed by and against juveniles. The Bulletin presents the most recent available data from victim survey and police incident reports, emphasizes that serious violent crime involving juveniles peaks in the hours immediately after the close of school, and discusses implications of the data for community strategies to reduce violent juvenile crime. The Bulletin is part of OJJDP’s National Report Series, which highlights selected themes at the forefront of juvenile justice policymaking and extracts relevant National Report sections (including selected graphs and tables).

Violent Neighborhoods, Violent Kids (Bulletin). 2000. 16 pp. NCJ 178248.

Presents findings of research that examined the types of delinquent behavior found among boys living in the three most violent neighborhoods in Washington, DC, and the role that institutions such as families, schools, churches, and youth-serving organizations play in the boys’ lives. Findings are based on statistical analyses of data collected in interviews with a random sample of 213 boys, ages 13 to 17, who in the summer of 1996 lived in one of the three census tracts identified. The Bulletin classifies the boys according to the type of criminal behavior, if any, they reported committing and describes patterns as to where and when violence takes place and what types of boys are engaged in violent acts.

Youth Gang Drug Trafficking (Bulletin). 1999. 12 pp. NCJ 178282.

Presents nationally representative data on the extent and nature of youth gang involvement in drug trafficking, based on results from OJJDP’s 1996 National Youth Gang Survey. This Youth Gang Series Bulletin analyzes survey data on both gang member involvement in drug sales and gang control of drug distribution. It discusses demographic factors including sex, age, and race/ethnicity of gang members and presents data on connections between drug sales and other offenses. The Bulletin also examines prevention strategies and programs that may be effective in jurisdictions that report youth gang involvement in drug trafficking.

Youth Gang Programs and Strategies (Summary). 2000. 96 pp. NCJ 171154.

Outlines programs and strategies that have been and are being used to break the appeal of gangs and reduce gang violence. As discussed in this Summary, preventing gang formation is a challenging task. Gangs emerge, grow, dissolve, and disappear for reasons that are poorly understood. In addition to describing existing programs and strategies used to disrupt gangs and divert youth from joining them, this Summary discusses evaluations and national assessments of some of these programs and strategies. It also provides an overview of what practitioners and administrators need to know before designing and implementing such programs and strategies.

Youth Gangs in Schools (Bulletin). 2000. 8 pp. NCJ 183015.

Presents results of analyses of gang-related data gathered by the 1995 School Crime Supplements (SCS). This Youth Gang Series Bulletin examines characteristics of gangs in schools, reasons for greater gang prevalence in some schools, and the impact of gangs on victimization at school. It also considers the involvement of gangs in three types of criminal activity: violence, drug sales, and gun carrying. More than one-third of students surveyed in the SCS reported gangs in their schools, and more than two-thirds reported gang involvement in at least one type of criminal activity. The Bulletin concludes that existing school security measures are not sufficient; additional interventions are needed to combat gangs in schools.


Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 1999 National Report (CD–ROM). 2000. NCJ 178991.

Provides juvenile justice professionals, policymakers, the media, and concerned citizens with the most comprehensive source of information about juvenile crime, violence, and victimization and about the response of the juvenile justice system to these problems—all in a user-friendly CD–ROM format. The CD–ROM allows users to view the 232-page Report in a portable document format (PDF). It also provides a comprehensive “educator’s kit,” which includes statistical information in full-page, presentation-ready graphs; data for the graphs; more than 40 source documents in PDF; and links to government Web sites.


OJJDP Research 2000 OJJDP Report
May 2001