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References

Bishop, D., Frazier, C., Lanza-Kaduce, L., and White, H. 1996. The transfer of juveniles to criminal court: Does it make a difference? Crime and Delinquency 42:171–191.

Bortner, M. 1986. Traditional rhetoric, organizational realities: Remand of juveniles to adult court. Crime and Delinquency 32(1):53–73.

Fagan, J. 1991. The Comparative Impacts of Juvenile and Criminal Court Sanctions on Adolescent Offenders. Report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice.

Fagan, J. 1995. Separating the men from the boys: The comparative advantage of juvenile versus criminal court sanctions on recidivism among adolescent felony offenders. In A Sourcebook: Serious, Violent, and Chronic Juvenile Offenders, edited by J. Howell, B. Krisberg, J.D. Hawkins, and J. Wilson. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Feld, B. 1987. The juvenile court meets the principle of the offense: Legislative changes in juvenile waiver statutes. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 78(3):471–533.

Gillespie, L., and Norman, M. 1984. Does decertification mean prison?: Some preliminary findings from Utah. Juvenile and Family Court Journal 35:23–34.

Griffin, P., Torbet, P., and Szymanski, L. 1998. Trying Juveniles as Adults in Criminal Court: An Analysis of State Transfer Provisions. Report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Hamparian, D., Estep, L., Muntean, S., Priestino, R., Swisher, R., Wallace, P., and White, J. 1982. Major Issues in Juvenile Justice Information and Training Youth in Adult Courts—Between Two Worlds. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Howell, J. 1996. Juvenile transfers to the criminal justice system: State of the art. Law & Policy 18(1 and 2):17–60.

Kent v. United States, 383 U.S. 541, 86 S. Ct. 1045 (1966).

Kuhn, J. 1989. A Digest of Cases of the United States Supreme Court as to Juvenile and Family Law, 1962–July 1988. Reno, NV: National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges.

Lemmon, J., Sontheimer, H., and Saylor, K. 1991. A Study of Pennsylvania Juveniles Transferred to Criminal Court. Harrisburg, PA: The Pennsylvania Juvenile Court Judges Commission.

Nimick, E., Szymanski, L., and Snyder, H. 1986. Juvenile Court Waiver: A Study of Juvenile Court Cases Transferred to Criminal Court. Pittsburgh, PA: National Center for Juvenile Justice.

Norman, M., and Gillespie, L. 1986. Changing horses: Utah’s shift in adjudicating serious juvenile offenders. Journal of Contemporary Law 12(1):85–98.

Pennsylvania Act 33: 42 Pa. Cons. Stat. Sec. 6301 et seq. (effective March 18, 1996). Pennsylvania transfer provisions: judicial waiver, 42 Pa. Cons. Stat. Ann. Sec. 6355; statutory exclusion, 42 Pa. Cons. Stat. Ann. Sec. 6302; decertification (reverse waiver), 42 Pa. Cons. Stat. Ann. Sec. 6322.

Phillips, M., and Norman, M. 1994. What a Difference a Decade Makes: A Second Look at Transferred Juveniles in Utah. Ogden, UT: Weber State University.

Rivers, J., and Trotti, T. 1989. South Carolina Delinquent Males: A Follow-up Into Adult Corrections. Columbia, SC: South Carolina Department of Youth Services.

Rivers, J., and Trotti, T. 1995. South Carolina delinquent males: An 11-year follow-up into adult probation and adult prison. Unpublished report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Rudman, C., Hartstone, E., Fagan, J., and Moore, M. 1986. Violent youth in adult court: Process and punishment. Crime and Delinquency 32(1):75–96.

Snyder, H., and Hutzler, J. 1981. The Serious Juvenile Offender: The Scope of the Problem and the Response of Juvenile Courts. Pittsburgh, PA: National Center for Juvenile Justice.

Snyder, H., and Sickmund, M. 1999. Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 1999 National Report. Report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Snyder, H., and Sickmund, M. 1995. Juvenile Offenders and Victims: A National Report. Report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

South Carolina transfer provisions: judicial waiver, S.C. Code Ann. Sec. 20–7–07605.

Stahl, A., Sickmund, M., Finnegan, T., Snyder, H., Poole, R., and Tierney, N. 1999. Juvenile Court Statistics 1996. Report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Torbet, P., and Szymanski, L. 1998. State Legislative Responses to Violent Juvenile Crime: 1996–97 Update. Bulletin. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Utah transfer provisions: judicial waiver, Utah Code Ann. Sections 78–3a–602 and 603; statutory exclusion, Utah Code Ann. Sec. 78–3a–601; concurrent jurisdiction, Utah Code Ann. Sec. 78–3a–25 (repealed, 1995).

Winner, L., Lanza-Kaduce, L., Bishop, D., and Frazier, C. 1997. The transfer of juveniles to criminal court: Reexamining recidivism over the long term. Crime and Delinquency 43:548–563.

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