Endnotes

1 Although it is recognized that men are sometimes battered, in approximately 95 percent of domestic violence cases, the victim is a woman (National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges, Effective Intervention in Domestic Violence and Child Maltreatment Cases: Guidelines for Policy and Practice, Reno, NV: National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges, 1999). In keeping with these data, and for the purposes of this document, domestic violence is assumed to refer to violence perpetrated by men against women in the context of an intimate relationship.

2 Many have enumerated the challenges in fully understanding and addressing children’s exposure to violence. In 1998, for example, Children’s Hospital and Health Center in San Diego, CA, began the process of developing its National Call to Action: Working Toward the Elimination of Child Maltreatment initiative. Among other things, this effort has further identified and delineated many of the challenges facing a national effort to eliminate child maltreatment. For more information, call the Children’s Hospital and Health Center project at 858–495–4972.

3 D. Kilpatrick and B. Saunders, Prevalence and Consequences of Child Victimization: Results from the National Survey of Adolescents, Final Report. Research in Brief, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice, 1997, NCJ 181028 (for availability information, click here).

4 Kilpatrick and Saunders, 1997.

5 H.N. Snyder and M. Sickmund, Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 1999 National Report, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 1999, NCJ 178257 (for availability information, click here).

6 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Child Maltreatment 1997: Reports from the States to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997.

7 A.C. Huston, F. Donnerstine, H. Fairchild, N.D. Feshbach, P.A. Katz, J.P. Murray, E.A. Rubinstein, B.L. Wilcox, and D. Zuckerman, Big World, Small Screen: The Role of Television in American Society. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1992.

8 U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office for Victims of Crime, Breaking the Cycle of Violence: Recommendations To Improve the Criminal Justice Response to Child Victims and Witnesses, Monograph, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, June 1999, NCJ 176983 (for availability information, click here).

9 L. Taylor, B. Zuckerman, V. Harik, and B.M. Groves, Witnessing violence by young children and their mothers, Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics 15(2):120–123, 1994.

10 Taylor et al., 1994.

11 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, 1997.

12 Snyder and Sickmund, 1999.

13 Snyder and Sickmund, 1999.

14 Kilpatrick and Saunders, 1997.

15 R.S. Pynoos and K. Nader, Children who witness the sexual assaults of their mothers, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 27(5):567–572, 1988.

16 National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information, In Harm’s Way: Domestic Violence and Child Maltreatment, Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information, 1999, p.1.

17 U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office for Victims of Crime, June 1999.

18 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, 1997.

19 M.A. Straus and R.J. Gelles, Physical Violence in American Families: Risk Factors and Adaptations to Violence in 8145 Families, New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1990, pp. 553 (table B.1) and 555 (Table B.3).

20 C.S. Widom, The Cycle of Violence, Research in Brief, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice, 1992, NCJ 136607 (for availability information, click here).

21 Widom, 1992.

22 Widom, 1992.

23 Kilpatrick and Saunders, 1997.

24 National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges, Effective Intervention in Domestic Violence and Child Maltreatment Cases: Guidelines for Policy and Practice, Reno, NV: National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges, 1999, p. 10.

25 U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office for Victims of Crime, June 1999.

26 U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office for Victims of Crime, June 1999.

27 For practical guidelines on interdisciplinary cooperation in the investigation of child abuse, see Forming a Multidisciplinary Team To Investigate Child Abuse, Portable Guides to Investigating Child Abuse, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 1998, NCJ 170020 (for availability information, click here). This manual explains the benefits of a multidisciplinary team to investigate child abuse and provides advice on forming and operating an effective team.

28 For related information, see M.L. Medaris, E. Campbell, and B. James, Sharing Information: A Guide to the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act and Participation in Juvenile Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention and U.S. Department of Education, Family Policy Compliance Office, June 1997, NCJ 163705 (for availability information, click here).

29 Medaris, Campbell, and James, 1997.

30 D.J. Siegel, The Developing Mind: Toward a Neurobiology of Interpersonal Experience, New York: The Guilford Press, 1999, p. 13.

31 Taylor et al., 1994.

32 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, 1997.

33 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, 1997.

34 J. McFarlane, B. Parker, and K. Soekan, Abuse during pregnancy: Associations with maternal health and infant birth weight, Nursing Research 45(1):37–42, 1996.

35 C.C. Bell, S. Gamm, P. Vallas, and P. Jackson, Strategies for the prevention of youth violence in Chicago public schools, in School Violence: Contributing Factors, Management and Prevention, edited by M. Shafi and S. Shafi, Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, in press.

36 For related information, see D. Olds, P. Hill, and E. Rumsey, Prenatal and Early Childhood Nurse Home Visitation, Bulletin, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, November 1998, NCJ 172875 (for availability information, click here).

37 OJJDP is currently funding a demonstration and evaluation of nurse home visitation in six sites.

38 U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office for Victims of Crime, June 1999.

39 For related information, see J. McNaughton, Overview of the Portable Guides to Investigating Child Abuse: Update 2000, Bulletin, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, February 2000, NCJ 178893 (for availability information, click here).

40 Kilpatrick and Saunders, 1997.

41 National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information, 1999, p. 2.

42 U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office for Victims of Crime, June 1999.

43 National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges, 1999, based on research reported by J.S. Edelson, Children’s witnessing of adult domestic violence, Journal of Interpersonal Violence 14(8):839–870, 1999. Also see S. Schecter and J.S. Edelson, Domestic Violence and Children: Creating a Public Response, New York, NY: Center on Crime, Communities & Culture of the Open Society Institute, 2000.

44 Schecter and Edelson, 2000.

45 Schecter and Edelson, 2000.

46 Schecter and Edelson, 2000.

47 Schecter and Edelson, 2000, pp. 109–110.

48 M. Courtney, The economics, paper presented at the San Diego Conference on Responding to Child Maltreatment, January 26, 1999.

49 Widom, 1992.

50 Notes of Summit participant Domonique Hensler, Community Health Administrator, Children’s Hospital and Health Center, San Diego, CA.

51 R.J. Sampson, S.W. Raudenbush, and F. Earls, Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy, Science 277:918–924, 1997.



Previous

Safe From the Start: Taking Action on Children Exposed to Violence
OJJDP Summary
November 2000