Table 4: Adolescent Risk Factors for Adult Victimization, Offending, and Drug Use

Adult Problem Outcome
(Dependent Variable) 
R_{L}^{2}* 
Adolescent Experience/
Characteristic (Independent Variable) 
Odds Ratio^{†} 
p(lr)^{‡} 

Violent victimization
(n=506) 
0.042 
Violent victimization 
2.2513 
0.0001

Age in 1976: 11 
2.3190 
0.0024 
12 
0.8596 

13 
0.5016 

Victimizationage interaction 
1.8335 
0.0278 

Property victimization (n=507) 
0.012 
Property victimization 
1.9431 
0.0045 

Domestic violence
victimization (n=491) 
0.059 
Violent victimization 
1.7038

0.0537

Violent offending (felony assault) 
1.4827 
0.0960 
Male 
1.9231 
0.0046 
Parents' socioeconomic status 
0.9780 
0.0022 

Domestic violence
perpetration (n=491) 
0.081 
Violent offending (felony assault) 
2.1013

0.0048

Violent victimization 
1.7496 
0.0479 
Male 
0.2269 
0.0000 

Violent offending
(felony assault) (n=496) 
0.148 
Violent offending (felony assault) 
3.7906

0.0000

Violent victimization 
3.5361 
0.0086 
Male 
2.2081 
0.0196 
Parents' socioeconomic status 
0.9784 
0.0303 

Property offending
(felony theft) (n=505) 
0.119 
Property offending (felony theft) 
2.4893

0.0034

Violent victimization 
2.8771 
0.0115 
Male 
2.7919 
0.0011 
Nonwhite 
2.1114 
0.0377 

Marijuana use (n=505) 
0.085 
Marijuana use 
3.7469 
0.0000 
Property victimization 
1.8716 
0.0125 

Polydrug use (n=502) 
0.082 
Polydrug use 
1.7995 
0.0525 
Marijuana use 
3.2670 
0.0000 

Problem drug use
(n=502) 
0.117 
Marijuana use

1.7724

0.0431

Polydrug use 
3.6031 
0.0000 
Violent victimization 
1.8810 
0.0378 
Male 
1.5918 
0.0537 

^{*} R_{L}^{2} (explained variation) indicates the strength of the relationship between each adult problem outcome and the set of adolescent predictors, taken as a group. It is the percentage reduction in error of prediction. For example, an R_{L}^{2} of 0.117 for problem drug use indicates that it is possible to reduce the error in predicting adult problem drug use by 11.7 percent if it is known whether the respondent is male and whether he or she was a victim of violence, a marijuana user, or a polydrug user in adolescence.
^{†} Odds ratios represent the factor by which to multiply the odds of a particular outcome for each predictor (e.g., being a victim of violence in adolescence multiplies the odds of being a problem drug user in adulthood by a factor of 1.88).
^{‡} The p(lr) (the likelihood ratio criterion) indicates the extent to which the predictive effects of the adolescent variables are statistically significant.
Backward stepwise elimination based on p(lr) was used to remove effects that were neither statistically significant nor marginally significant (with p < .05 representing statistical significance and p < .10 representing marginal significance) from the model.

Short and LongTerm Consequences of Adolescent Victimization 
Youth Violence Research Bulletin • February 2002 
