Table 5: Adolescent Risk Factors for Adult Mental Health Problems
^{*} R_{L}^{2} (explained variation) indicates the strength of the relationship between each adult problem outcome and the set of adolescent predictors, taken as a group. It is the percentage reduction in error of prediction. For example, an R_{L}^{2} of 0.105 for ever having posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) indicates that it is possible to reduce the error in predicting ever having PTSD if it is known whether the respondent is male, how old the respondent was in 1976, what the respondent's parents' socioeconomic status is, and whether the respondent was a victim of violence or had mental health problems in adolescence. ^{†} Odds ratios represent the factor by which to multiply the odds of a particular outcome for each predictor (e.g., being a victim of violence in adolescence multiplies the odds of ever having PTSD by the time one reaches adulthood by a factor of 2.15). ^{‡} The p(lr) (the likelihood ratio criterion) indicates the extent to which the predictive effects of the adolescent variables are statistically significant. Backward stepwise elimination based on p(lr) was used to remove effects that were neither statistically significant nor marginally significant (with p < .05 representing statistical significance and p < .10 representing marginal significance) from the model.
