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II. America's Drug Use Profile
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Endnotes

1 Harvard University/University of Maryland, American Attitudes Toward Children's Health Issues (Princeton, N.J.: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 1997).

2 Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Preliminary Results from the 1997 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, (Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1998), 66.

3 Ibid.

4 Ibid., 9.

5 Ibid., 87.

6 Office of National Drug Control Policy, What America's Users Spend on Illegal Drugs, 1988-1995 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1997), 8.

7 The Gallup Organization, Consult with America: A Look at How Americans View the Country's Drug Problem, Summary Report (Rockville, MD: The Gallup Organization, 1996).

8 National Institute on Drug Abuse and National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, The Economic Costs of Alcohol and Drug Abuse in the United States 1992, (Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, September 1998), 1-10. In 1995, drug abuse was estimated to have cost $109.8 billion.

9 Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Analyses of Substance Abuse and Treatment Need Issues, Analytic Series A-7 (Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1998), 93.

10 Jeffrey Merrill, Kimberley Fox, Susan Lewis and Gerald Pulver, Cigarettes, Alcohol, Marijuana: Gateways to Illicit Drug Use (New York: Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, 1994), iii.

11 Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Drug Abuse Warning Network Annual Medical Examiner Data 1996 (Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1998), 58.

12 K.D. Peters, K.D. Kochanek, S.L. Murphy, Deaths: Final Data for 1996. National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 47, No. 9. (Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, 1998).

13 Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Year-End Preliminary Estimates from the 1996 Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) (Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1997), 20. Many health-related complications of drug abuse do not immediately manifest themselves, and DAWN data are thus considered to be trailing indicators of the consequences of drug abuse. These preliminary results may be subject to upward revision.

14 Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Year-End Preliminary Estimates from the 1997 Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) (Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, forthcoming)

15 Ibid.

16 Ibid.

17 Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Mid-Year 1997 Emergency Department Data from the Preliminary Estimates from Drug Abuse Warning Network (Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1998), 7.

18 Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Year-End Preliminary Estimates from the 1997 Drug Abuse Warning Network.

19 Ibid.

20 Alan Leshner, "Addiction is a Brain Disease -- And It Matters," National Institute of Justice Journal (October 1998), 3.

21 National Institute on Drug Abuse and National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, The Economic Costs of Alcohol and Drug Abuse in the United States 1992, 7-17.

22 Encarnacion Pyle, "Help for Homeless" Ventura County Star, December 27, 1998, A1.

23 "Homeless Deaths Are Rising in San Francisco," New York Times, December 21, 1998, A16.

24 Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Preliminary Results, 82.

25 Ibid.

26 Ibid.

27 Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, An Analysis of Worker Drug Use and Workplace Policies and Programs, Analytic Series: A-2 (Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1997), 9.

28 National Institute on Drug Abuse and National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, The Economic Costs of Alcohol and Drug Abuse in the United States 1992, 5-1.

29 Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Preliminary Results, 1.

30 Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Driving After Drug or Alcohol Use: Findings from the 1996 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, Analytic Series A-8 (Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, December 1998), 50.

31 For example, see the review in Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Analyses of Substance Abuse and Treatment Need Issues, 89-90.

32 Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Analyses of Substance Abuse and Treatment Need Issues, 90.

33 Ibid.

34 Center for Substance Abuse Research, University of Maryland at College Park, "Forty Percent of Juvenile Detainees in Maryland Need Treatment -- Primarily for Marijuana Abuse/ Dependence" CESAR Fax, Vol. 7, No. 42 (October 19, 1998).

35 Lloyd Johnson, Preliminary Results on Illicit Drug and Alcohol Use from Monitoring the Future (Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 1999), Table 1B.

36 Merrill et al, Cigarettes, Alcohol, Marijuana, 15.

37 National Institute on Drug Abuse and National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, The Economic Costs of Alcohol and Drug Abuse in the United States 1992, 1.

38 Rosalie Liccardo Pacula, "Does increasing the beer tax reduce marijuana consumption?" Journal of Health Economics Volume 17 (1998), 557-585.

39 Merrill et al, Cigarettes, Alcohol, Marijuana, I.

40 Federal Bureau of Investigation, Uniform Crime Reports 1997, (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, 1998), 222.

41 See National Institute of Justice, ADAM: 1997 Annual Report on Adult and Juvenile Arrestees, (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, 1998).

42 Ibid., 37.

43 Ibid., 1.

44 Ibid., 2

45 Ibid., 10.

46 Ibid., 2.

47 Ibid., 3.

48 Darrell Gilliard and Allen Beck, Prisoners in 1997 (Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1998), 1.

49 Ibid., 11.

50 Christopher Mumola, Substance Abuse and Treatment, State and Federal Prisoners, 1997 (Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1998), 1.

51 United States Sentencing Commission, 1997 Sourcebook of Federal Sentencing Statistics (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Sentencing Commission, 1998), 68.

52 Darrell Gilliard and Allen Beck, Prisoners in 1997, 1.

53 Bureau of Justice Statistics, Lifetime Likelihood of Going to State or Federal Prison (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, 1998, 1997).

54 Kathleen Maguire and Ann L. Pastore, eds., Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics 1997 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice), 11.

55 Liz Leyden, "Study Contrasts N.Y. Prison, Education Priorities" The Washington Post, December 1, 1998, A7.

56 Ching-Tung Wang and Deborah Daro, Current Trends in Child Abuse Reporting and Fatalities: The Results of the 1997 Annual Fifty State Survey (Chicago: National Committee to Prevent Child Abuse, 1998), 2. See also National Committee To Prevent Child Abuse, The Relationship between Parental Alcohol or Other Drug Problems and Child Maltreatment, January 24, 1999.

57 M.M. Dore, J.M. Doris, and P. Wright, "Identifying Substance Abuse in Maltreating Families: A Child Welfare Challenge," Child Abuse and Neglect, 19, No. 5 (1995), 531-543.

58 National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University (CASA), No Safe Haven: Children of Substance-Abusing Parents. (New York: National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, 1999), 4-5.

59 Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Preliminary Results, 67.

60 Ibid., 104.

61 Office of National Drug Control Policy, What America's Users Spend, 8.

62 Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Preliminary Results, 104.

63 Office of National Drug Control Policy, Semiannual Interagency Assessment of Cocaine Movement (Washington, D.C.: Office of National Drug Control Policy, 1998), v.

64 Abt Associates, "Prices of Illicit Drugs: 1981-1997," unpublished memorandum prepared for the Office of National Drug Control Policy, 1997, and ONDCP internal analysis of DEA's System to Retrieve Drug Information (STRIDE), 1999.

65 Ibid.

66 Office of National Drug Control Policy, Fifteenth Edition, Interagency Assessment of Cocaine Movement (Washington, D.C.: Office of National Drug Control Policy, F1998), V.

67 Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Preliminary Results, 67.

68 Ibid.

69 Ibid., 103.

70 ONDCP internal analysis of DEA's System to Retrieve Drug Information (STRIDE), 1999.

71 David Crary, "Hottest New Import from Canada: Pot," The (Tacoma) News Tribune, April 18, 1998, A1.

72 National Narcotics Intelligence Consumers Committee, The NNICC Report 1997 (Washington, D.C.: Drug Enforcement Administration, 1998), 73.

73 Office of National Drug Control Policy, What America's Users Spend, 8.

74 Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Preliminary Results, 19.

75 Ibid., 102.

76 Ibid., 107.

77 Lloyd Johnson, Monitoring the Future, Table 8.

78 Office of National Drug Control Policy, Pulse Check: National Trends in Drug Abuse, Summer 1998 (Washington, D.C.: Office of National Drug Control Policy, 1998), 3.

79 Abt Associates, "Prices of Illicit Drugs," 13.

80 ONDCP internal analysis of DEA's System to Retrieve Drug Information (STRIDE), 1999.

81 Office of National Drug Control Policy, Pulse Check, 3.

82 National Narcotics Intelligence Consumers Committee, The NNICC Report 1997, 39.

83 ADAM 1997, 54.

84 Ibid., 57.

85 National Narcotics Intelligence Consumers Committee, The NNICC Report 1997, 63.

86 Ibid., 68.

87 Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Preliminary Results, 19.

88 Ibid., 106.

89 Ibid., 68.

90 Ibid., 66.

91 Ibid., 102.

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1999 National Drug Control Strategy Office of National Drug Control Policy