1. Hoyert, D.L., K.D. Kochanek, and S.L. Murphy, Deaths: Final Data for 1997, National Vital Statistics Reports, 1999; 47 (19).
2. The terms gun homicide and firearm homicide have the same definition and are used interchangeably throughout the bulletin.
4. Kellermann, A.L., and J.A. Mercy, Men, Women, and Murder: Gender-Specific Differences in Rates of Fatal Violence and Victimization, The Journal of Trauma, 1992; 33:15.
5. Hoyert, D.L., K.D. Kochanek, and S.L. Murphy, Deaths: Final Data for 1997, National Vital Statistics Reports, 1999; 47 (19).
8. Nonfatal and Fatal Firearm-Related InjuriesUnited States, 19931997, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 1999; 48:10291034.
9. Annest, J.L., J.A. Mercy, D.R. Gibson, and G.W. Ryan, National Estimates of Nonfatal Firearm-Related Injuries: Beyond the Tip of the Iceberg, The Journal of the American Medical Association, 1995; 273:17491754.
10. Available online at http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=dcdetail&iid=245.
11. In the Crossfire: The Impact of Gun Violence on Public Housing Communities, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, February 2000.
12. Bell, C.C., and E.J. Jenkins, Exposure and Response to Community Violence Among Children and Adolescents, in Children in a Violent Society, Osofsky, ed., The Guilford Press, 1997.
13. Campbell, C., and Donald F. Schwarz, Prevalence and Impact of Exposure to Interpersonal Violence Among Suburban and Urban Middle School Students, Pediatrics, 1996; 98:396402.
14. Available online at http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=dcdetail&iid=245.
16. See, e.g, Reiss, A.J., and J.A. Roth, Understanding and Preventing Violence, National Academy Press, 1993, pp. 260261; Zimring, F.E., and G. Hawkins, Crime Is Not the Problem: Lethal Violence in America, Oxford University Press, 1997, pp. 106123.
17. Saltzman, L.E., J.A. Mercy, P.W. OCarroll, M.L. Rosenberg, and P.H. Rhodes, Weapon Involvement and Injury Outcomes in Family and Intimate Assaults, The Journal of the American Medical Association, 1992; 267:30433047. (When a gun is involved in a domestic dispute, it is at least 12 times more likely that the dispute will end in death.)
18. Zawitz, Marianne, Firearm Injury From Crime, U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1996.
19. Firearm-Associated Homicides Among Family Members, Relatives, or FriendsOhio, Epidemiologic Notes and Reports, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 1989; 38 (15):253256.
20. Larson, Eric, Lethal Passage, Vintage Books, 1995, p. 86. (Describing student holding up French textbook to ward off bullets from a Cobray M 11/9 semiautomatic pistol shot by a fellow student.)
21. Slevin, Peter, District Teen Gets 127 Years in Random Shooting of Four, The Washington Post, Jan. 6, 2000, p. B2.
22. A list of multiple-victim shootings in the United States is available online at www.bellcampaign.org.
23. Temple, Scott, Treating Inner-City Families of Homicide Victims: A Contextually Oriented Approach, Family Process, 1997; 36 (2):133149.
24. Schwab-Stone, Mary E., Tim S. Ayers, Wesley Kasprow, Charlene Voyce, Charles Barone, Timothy Shriver, and Roger P. Weissberg, No Safe Haven: A Study of Violence Exposure in an Urban Community, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1995; 34 (10):13431352.
25. Duncan, David, Growing Up Under the Gun: Children and Adolescents Coping With Violent Neighborhoods, Journal of Primary Prevention, 1996; 16:343356.
26. Bastian, Lisa, and B. Taylor, Young Black Male Victims, U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1994.
27. Adolescent Assault Victim Needs: A Review of Issues and a Model Protocol, Pediatrics, 1996; 98:991999.
28. Slevin, Peter, District Teen Gets 127 Years in Random Shooting of Four, The Washington Post, Jan. 6, 2000, p. B2.
29. Jackman, Tom, Group Urges More Help for Victims of Crimes, The Washington Post, Dec. 15, 2000, p. B5.
30. Christoffel, K.K., Youth Violence Prevention: The Physicians Role, medical student Journal of the American Medical Association (msJAMA).
31. Nader, Kathi, Robert Pynoos, Lynn Fairbanks, and Calvin Frederick, Childrens PTSD Reactions One Year After a Sniper Attack at Their School, The American Journal of Psychiatry, 1990; 147:15261530.
32. Bell, C.C., and E.J. Jenkins, Exposure and Response to Community Violence Among Children and Adolescents, in Children in a Violent Society, Osofsky, ed., The Guilford Press, 1997.
33. Richters, John E., and Pedro Martinez, The NIMH Community Violence Project: I. Children as Victims of and Witnesses to Violence, Psychiatry, 1993; 56:721.
34. Rand, M.R., Violence Related Injuries Treated in Hospital Emergency Departments, U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1997.
35. Cook, P.J., B.A. Lawrence, J. Ludwig, and T.R. Miller, The Medical Costs of Gunshot Injuries in the United States, The Journal of the American Medical Association, 1999; 282:447454.
36. Kizer, K.W., M.J. Vassar, R.L. Harry, and K.D. Layton, Hospitalization Charges, Costs, and Income for Firearm Related Injuries at a University Trauma Center, The Journal of the American Medical Association, 1995; 273:1768 1773.
37. Cook, P.J., B.A. Lawrence, J. Ludwig, and T.R. Miller, The Medical Costs of Gunshot Injuries in the United States, The Journal of the American Medical Association, 1999; 282:447454.
38. Ordog, G.J., J. Wasserberger, and G. Ackroyd, Hospital Costs of Firearm Injuries, The Journal of Trauma, 1995; 38:291298.
40. Klein, S.R., I.J. Kanno, D.A. Gilmore, and S.E. Wilson, The Socioeconomic Impact of Assault Injuries on an Urban Trauma Center, The American Surgeon, 1991; 57:793797.
41. Goldman, H., Gun Violence in the U.S. Costs More Than $100 Billion a Year, Bloomberg News, available online through Deseret News Archives at deseretnews.com.
42. Available online at www.spinalcord.org/resource/Factsheets/factsheet2.html.
43. DeVito, M.J., Causes and Costs of Spinal Cord Injury in the United States, Spinal Cord, 1997; 35:809813.
44. Holicky, R., Violently Acquired SCI: A Recipe for Inequity. Available online at www.spinlife.com (reprinted from New Mobility, March 2000).
45. The National Education Association has issued Advice for Journalists covering school shootings. See www.nea.org/schoolsafety/.
46. Brooks, K., V. Schiraldi, and J. Zeidenberg, School House Hype: Two Years Later, Justice Policy Institute/Childrens Law Center, 2000. Available online at www.cjcj.org/schoolhousehype/shh2.html.
47. Spungen, Deborah, Homicide: The Hidden Victims, A Guide for Professionals, Sage Publications, 1998, pp. 110111.
48. While a recent survey conducted for OVC indicates that 23 percent of the programs enter information into their databases about whether the crime was gun related, OVC does not require states to report the number of claimants who were victims of gun violence, although states do report categories of assault (34 percent of claims) and survivors of homicide (11 percent of claims).
49. In October 1996, OVC recommended that hospital-based counseling and prevention programs be established in medical facilities that provide services to adolescent gunshot victims and victims of gang violence. In May 1998, OVC made the same recommendation in New Directions From the Field: Victims Rights and Services for the 21st Century.
50. Gregorie, Trudy, School ViolenceAre You Prepared To Respond? National Center for Victims of Crime, 1999. Available online at www.ncvc.org/newsltr/schvio.htm.
51. Brock, K., When Men Murder Women: An Analysis of 1997 Homicide Data: Females Murdered by Males in Single Victim/Single Offender Incidents, Violence Policy Center, 1999.