(The following material is excerpted from the NVAA specialized offering "The Ultimate Educator.")
So you have to give a presentation . . . .
The thought of presenting a lecture, speech, or workshop can be intimidating to some and exhilarating to others. Presenters' perceptions of their own capabilities and knowledge base ultimately contribute to their comfort level. The many components involved in preparing for a presentation have a significant influence on the outcome. Perhaps most significantly, presenters must be comfortable with a style that suits both them and their audience.
The five core concepts of a strong presentation are represented in the age-old refrain to a favorite nursery rhyme: "E-I-E-I-O."
1. Engage participants from the moment they enter the training venue to the time they depart.
2. Interact with participants to avoid a one-way transfer of knowledge and to assess the level at which they are grasping the concepts that are being presented.
3. Educate participants with current and cutting-edge information and resources.
4. Involve students in the learning process through experiential activities and exercises.
5. Organize the presentation so that the flow of information and the tone of the presentation are consistent.
The Role of the Presenter/Trainer
It is the responsibility of the presenter/trainer to lead the training session and to facilitate participants' interactions that will lend positively to their overall learning experience. While organization and control are necessary components of presentation, they must be tempered with a flexibility that respects students' expectations and needs and reflects an understanding of the importance of a comfortable, friendly learning environment.
A strong presenter ensures that key training topics are addressed while, at the same time, being willing to tackle issues that arise from interactions with participants.
Teaching Versus Training
Presentations offered in the field of victim services usually encompass styles and outcomes most associated with training. In some cases, such as the National Victim Assistance Academy, university-style teaching via lectures is combined with training styles and techniques.
Training focuses on the learners, with an emphasis on their needs. In training venues, the presenter fills the role of facilitator, providing guidance through an interactive learning design to help students incorporate information into their personal frame of reference and discover ways to apply it in practical ways to their work and lives.
The primary differences between teaching and training are best summarized by renowned adult learning theorist M. S. Knowles (1980) in the following table.
Primary Differences Between Teaching and Training
Regardless of whether a presentation is a 30-minute speech or a two-day training session, it is critical that the presenter be prepared for the experience. Lack of preparation is always obvious, and reflects poorly on both the presenter and sponsors of the program. Thoughtful, coordinated preparation almost always results in a presentation that is informative and engaging.
There are five critical considerations for advance preparation:
Audience. It is essential to know who the primary audience is. In the discipline of victim services, audience members can include the following:
Often, an audience is comprised of a combination of the above groups, each of which may have its own goals and expectations for the presentation. In identifying the types of audience members, presenters can formulate both their content and style to increase participants' comfort and to maximize the potential for participant training.
While it is helpful to know participants' affiliations, it is equally essential to have a basic understanding of their familiarity with the presentation topic, level(s) of knowledge, and possible expectations:
Politics among participants. Two victim advocates often reflect upon a shared training experience in which they thought they had "advance preparation" down to a science. After arriving and setting up the room for a two-day training session, participants began to arrive and move their name plates around. One casually explained that "It's not a good idea for certain people in this session to sit next to each other; we could have some problems."
Advance preparation requires that a presenter have advance knowledge and understanding of any "political land mines" among participants and sponsors. These might include:
An understanding of politics among participants can result in several distinct approaches for the presenter, who can:
Current events. Prior to conducting a training program, presenters should make a diligent effort to be knowledgeable about current events. These might include:
Such activities can be identified through advance conversations with the training program's sponsors, or by reviewing the past week's (or month's) newspapers (which are readily available on news media's Web sites).
Physical environment. Often, presenters have little or no control over the physical environment of the training venue:
It is helpful for presenters to have a table set up at the front of the room to accommodate presentation materials, such as overhead transparencies and participant handouts. A resource table in the back of the room near the door is also a good idea so that presenters and participants can leave materials for students to take, as they choose.
Rooms should always be set up with an entrance/exit door in the back of the room, so that participants can come and go without disrupting the presentation. The participant registration table can be placed outside the training room near the entrance/exit door.
Presentation agenda and topics. There is no such thing as "too much information" in preparing to give a presentation.
In planning a presentation, there must be strong collaboration between the presenter and the sponsor(s) of the program. It is crucial to match the needs and goals of the audience with the skills and knowledge of the presenter. Without advance collaboration, a "disconnect" between the presenter's goals and the sponsors' goals is likely to occur.
The following questions are helpful in ascertaining the sponsor's goals for the presentation, as well as expected outcomes:
When participants first arrive at a presentation venue, they should be immediately engaged by the presenter and by the physical environment. They should be visually enthralled by the learning environment. They should be able to look around and say to themselves, "This looks like it is going to be an engaging and interactive presentation."
Some creative ideas for on-site preparation include:
Use of visuals. There are many different types of visuals that can enhance a presentation venue:
Refreshments. Water, coffee, tea, sodas, and morning/afternoon snacks are important to participants as well as presenters. Small candies placed on tables are usually met with gratitude from weary students.
"Prize box." A box or bag decorated with felt markers to indicate "FABULOUS PRIZES" catches participants' eyes, and gets them thinking about if/how they could get whatever is in the box. Inexpensive prizes can be found at the local dollar store; candy bars make good prizes, as well as items from victim service and justice organizations or conference resource arenas (such as buttons, bookmarks, t-shirts, notepads, etc.)
Interpersonal interactions. Participants should also be greeted upon arrival by the presenter(s). This requires plenty of advance preparation (including planning to arrive at least 30 minutes before the designated starting time) so that when participants arrive, the presenter is prepared to personally meet them.
Some presenters find it difficult to personally meet and greet students prior to the presentation. While this process takes practice to perfect, it is helpful to create an immediate "bond" between the presenter and participants.
Some examples of personal greetings include:
Use of music. An audio tape/CD player with tapes or CDs is a great tool for livening up the training environment. Music can be played that reflects the theme(s) of the program (for example, "We Can Work It Out" for a session on collaboration; "Respect" for a session on burnout and stress). For longer sessions, students can be asked to bring their favorite tape or CD to share their music with others.
Anatomy of a Presentation
The "anatomy of a presentation" describes its scope and the activities that enhance the learning process. While there are a variety of components applicable to different presentations, for the purposes of presentations related to victims' rights and services, twelve key elements are essential:
1. Introduction of the presenter. Presenters should have three types of vita that summarize their accomplishments:
The first format should be utilized for introductions; the second for conference or training program announcements; and the third to provide an historical summary of the presenter's overall accomplishments.
2. Introduction of participants. Participant introduction exercises will vary, depending upon the size of the group. Various approaches include:
3. Overview of the topic or lesson plan. The presenter can offer a brief summary of his/her learning goals and objectives, and indicate "This is where I plan to go today. Would everyone like to go there with me?" This encourages a "statement of learning objectives" from both the presenter and participants.
4. Expectations. This brief exercise can be combined with participant introductions (time permitting), and provides students with an opportunity to describe what they hope to get out of the presentation. The "expectations" process also allows the presenter to clarify which expectations can be met through the presentation, placing others in the "parking lot" for further reference to additional resources.
5.Icebreakers. These individual or group exercises are intended to immediately engage participants. Icebreakers use new insights, humor, or quick, interactive activities to introduce the topics in an interpersonal manner. Examples of icebreakers include:
6. The "hook." It is important to "grab participants' attention" from the very beginning of a presentation, and draw them into the learning process. Examples of hooks include surprising new statistics; descriptions of promising practices that positively change the way business is conducted; or a provocative question that opens up discussion and debate among participants, such as "In your opinion, what is the most significant accomplishment of America's victims' rights discipline?"
7. Main ideas or concepts. These are directly related to the session's lesson plan and/or goals and objectives. Main ideas or concepts should be considered in the context of this question: "What are the key points that I want participants to leave the session with?" They can be presented through a variety of approaches, including the following:
8. Participant activities. These include individual, small group, and full group exercises designed to promote subjective thinking and interactive discussions relevant to the main topics. Participant activities can be planned in advance of the presentation (with prepared worksheets and exercise guidelines provided to participants), or created on-the-spot to emphasize a critical issue or point. Clear guidelines on activities and time lines should be provided, either orally or in writing. Examples of participant activities are included in Appendix B.
9. Action planning. This process, which involves using the information gained from the presentation to plan for positive change in the future, can be brief or extensive, depending upon time constraints and program goals and objectives. At the least, action planning should encourage participants to consider the following:
10. Closing. The process of closing all presentations should also be considered a "genesis"the beginning of the practical applications of what has been experienced, shared, and learned through the presentation. For example, presenters can offer a challenge to participants, or summarize the presentation with a favorite anecdote or quotation. An essential component of the closing is to thank participants for attending and sharing their insights, and validating that their input contributes to improved presentations in the future for the trainer. (Refer to Chapter 8 of "The Ultimate Educator" for additional information about closing.)
11. Evaluation. Participants should be given time to assess the quality of the presentation and presenter, and to offer their suggestions as to how the presentation can be improved. Evaluations offer presenters helpful guidance to improve their presentation style and content in the future. (Refer to Chapter 8 of "The Ultimate Educator" for additional information about evaluation.)
12. Follow-up. If presenters offer additional resources to participants, it is essential to honor commitments in a timely manner. The use of both e-mail and prepared resource/information packages on frequently-presented topics helps facilitate effective follow-up, and reinforces the learning experience beyond the on-site environment of the presentation.
The anatomy of the human body can also be used as a basis for understanding the anatomy of a presentation. Consider the following:
Communication Skills and Styles
There is an endless array of communication styles among presenters, who must find a style that suits their knowledge, personality, and professional experience. There are five "theories" related to the development of strong communication skills:
1. Nobody is born a great communicator. Communication skills reflect a culmination of one's life experiences as well as personal and professional interactions with others.
2. Communication style is unique. Good presenters pick up ideas and tips from other presenters whose styles they admire, but personalize them to their own frame of reference.
3. Communication equates to connection with the topic(s), the audience, and the professions that are affected by the presentation. It is the presenter's most essential tool to develop a bond of mutual trust and respect.
4. The development of good communication skills takes time. It is a journey, not a destination. The road to good communication skills challenges presenters with both fast thoroughfares and roadblocks that contribute to a style that is uniquely theirs.
5. All presenters have strengths and weaknesses. The goal of all presenters should be to build upon their strengths and eliminate or mitigate their weaknesses through commitment and practice. Practice, indeed, makes perfect!
Respect for the audience. While a presenter is usually expected to bring a new and different level of expertise to the audience, it is critical to publicly recognize the audience's knowledge and commitment to the topic so as to honor the richness and diversity of its experience. Advance preparation can contribute to this goal: If a presenter knows accomplishments and activities of participants or their communities, this should be validated early on in the process. Validation that "victim assistance is difficult work that takes a special kind of person" is also important. Reflections on the many historical accomplishments of the victims' rights discipline relevant to the training topic(s) are helpfulparticularly those related to the jurisdiction in which the training program is being held. And acknowledgment of the contributions of diversity to the disciplines of justice and victim assistance (diversity by gender, culture, geography, age, and political persuasions, among others) serves to validate the importance of differing perspectives and views.
Orientation to the physical space. Presenters should make time to "bond" with their physical environment. It is helpful to determine what volume of voice is needed to reach the back of the room; whether there is a table for slides and audio-visual aids; whether the presenter can easily move around among participants; and whether the walls are thick or thin to help avoid interruptions from outside the room.
Humility. When a presenter is introduced (often as an "expert" in the presentation topic), it is a good idea to offer background information about how one's success came to be. Examples include:
Comfort with the topic. The adage "practice makes perfect" directly applies to communication skills and styles. A good presenter reaches a "comfort zone" only when he or she truly knows the topic, and is able to convey it without being glued to notes or slides. "Practice" can be derived from consistent presentations of a topic, or plenty of practice in advance of presenting a new topic.
Rhythm. One can consider the rhythm of the ocean as a good guide for "presentation rhythm." The calm and quiet sea can, with enough current, turn into gentle undulations that build into strong and powerful waves. In presentations, there is a time for quiet, a time for building up energy, and a time for unleashing a wave of spirit and enthusiasm. Presentation rhythm must adapt itself to a presenter's individual style, and to the tenor of the audience.
Engaging the audience. A presenter can be either a distant icon or an active participant in the learning process. Strong communication skills require extensive interaction with the audienceasking questions, validating responses, physically moving around the participants, and engaging participants in interactive exercises that tap their knowledge and experience.
"Eyes wide open." Keeping an eye on participants and their reactions, levels of engagement, and lack of either is a critical tool for presenters. The "body language" of participants can be very telling as to how they are reacting to the material, and it's important to be aware ofand respond toany nuances or reactions that may ultimately affect the quality of the training program.
"Mixing it up." A combination of presentation techniques and styles contributes to successful training programs. There is a time to be serious and a time to be humorous; a time to lecture with a research foundation, and a time to diverge from lecture and use experiential tools such as victims' experience; and a time to stick to a lesson plan, and a time to diverge in order to meet participants' needs.
Connecting to the cutting edge. Information that is new and thought provoking always engages an audience. The "Staying on the Cutting Edge" section of this chapter offers a variety of resources that help keep presenters abreast of the latest developments in victim assistance, criminal and juvenile justice, public safety, and allied professional concerns.
Being "prepared to punt." The best laid plans can sometimes go awry. A fundamental skill of training is the capacity to be "fluid and flexible," that is, to be prepared to diverge from original training plans and schedule if participants' reactions indicate a need to do so. Participants' needs are much more important than the needs of a trainer to maintain a rigid schedule.
Inflexibility. If there is one weakness in lesson plans, it is their capacity to tie a presenter to a predetermined set of goals and values. Rigidity constricts the learning process. The learning experience should be fluid and flexible to accommodate participants' expectations and needs.
"All about me." Perhaps the greatest communication weakness is for a presenter to be too self-focused. The concepts of "me" and "my" should be banished from a presenter's toolbox. The bottom line is: "It's not about the presenter; it's all about the audience."
Knowledge without experience. While presentation of research-based information is vital to victim service professionals, it is critical to make the research "come alive" with real-life stories and experiences. If the presenter has none to offer, it is likely that participants do. Thus, it is important to engage participants in discussions to interpret research findings to the reality of crime victims and victim assistance professionals.
Lack of preparation. Presenters who are unprepared can fool neither themselves nor their audience. It is better to turn down presentation assignments that cannot be completed with knowledge, enthusiasm, and precision.
Lack of rest. When a presenter is tired, it sets a tiring pace for the entire session. A good night's rest preceding the presentation, avoidance of alcohol or too many stimulants such as coffee and cigarettes, a light breakfast, and quiet time planned before the actual presentation all combat this potential pitfall.
"Podium clutching." This concept describes presenters who grip the lectern and use it as a shield, while failing to grip the audience. "Podium clutchers" tend to lecture, be rigid, and avoid interaction with the audience. Continual practice as a presenter will remove the physical and emotional barriers that a podium represents, and allow the presenter to be and appear relaxed and comfortable with the topics.
Inappropriate emulation. Presenters often know a colleague whose presentation style they admire and wish to emulate. However, each presenter is unique, and his or her style must reflect a distinctive approach that is comfortable. Attempts to replicate somebody else's style and approach to presentation take away from one's personal strengths and characteristics. While imitation is, indeed, the sincerest form of flattery, it can also lead to a presentation style that is neither comfortable nor consistent for a trainer.
COMPONENTS OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
Typically, there are five core components associated with good communication:
Appearance. While presenters cannot easily change the way they look, they can ensure that they always look their best. It is important to determine the ambiance of the presentation venue; presenters should always dress in a manner that reflects the audience's comfort level. For example, keynote speeches usually require business attire. More informal presentationsparticularly those that encompass multiple daysallow for business casual attire, i.e., slacks and comfortable shoes. It is essential to coordinate attire with the sponsors of the presentation to fit the tenor of the event.
Personal hygiene is essential for all presentations. Clean and pressed clothes, neat hair, brushed teeth (and fresh breath!), and limited physical distractions (such as too much jewelry or change that jingles in one's pockets) all contribute to a positive appearance.
Speaking. Six elements affect the style of a presenter's speaking skills:
Listening. The listening skills that are so essential to the success and effectiveness of victim service professionals in working with victims should be incorporated into presentation skills. Just as a presenter hopes his or her audience listens and understands the key concepts being taught, it is very important to return the courtesy of respectful listening to one's students.
Because of the often fast pace of presentations, it is helpful to seek confirmation about what participants have said. Summarizing and repeating participants' comments or questions can ensure that the presenter has truly heard the key components of what they are saying or asking. In larger training venues, this approach also helps to ensure that other participants hear and understand the comment or question.
Validating. When participants are engaged and they speak up and offer opinions or ask questions, their effort should be rewarded with validation from the speaker. Validation expresses appreciation for the input, and confirms that the input is valuable and appreciated. Some common validation techniques for presenters include:
Body language. Body language is an important element of presentation. A presenter's nonverbal communication portrays a great deal about him or her to the audience.
The following guidelines are helpful in linking body language to positive communication with the participants:
In addition, there are nonverbal and verbal actions that can detrimentally affect one's presentation:
Dealing with "Problem Participants"
In an ideal world, every participant would be excited to learn, glad to be involved in the learning experience, committed to being a "team player," and eager to please the instructor. However, not all participants fit this description; some students view training as a nightmare from which they hope they will soon awake.
Sometimes problem behaviors can be identified early on in the presentation by ultimate presentation skills that:
There are typically five types of participants that pose challenges to both the instructor and the learning process:
1. Dominators: Attempt to take control of the learning environment away from the instructor.
2. Hostages: Do not want to be at the training, and make sure that everyone knows this fact.
3. Arguers: Will argue with the presenter and other participants simply for the sake of argument.
4. Distractors: Have difficulty remaining focused on the learning process and, as a result, engage in behavior that distracts from the training program.
5. Class clowns: Take every opportunity to tell jokes and make others laugh, regardless of the serious nature of the topic.
The following charts examine the types of "problem behaviors" described above, as well as potential responses from an ultimate presenter:
The Class Clown
When dealing with "problem participants," an instructor's ability to "punt" will be utilized as never before. It's important to remember that bad behaviors should be addressedprivately with emphasis, or publicly with a light touch of humorso that control of the learning environment is not turned over to the problem participant, and that disruptions are limited or eliminated.
Audio/visual training aids can greatly enhance the presentation process. Essentially, there are eleven training aids that are relevant to presentations about victim- and justice-related issues:
1. Presentation slides. Numerous presentation software packages exist that can enhance a speaker's audio/visual presentation. Presenters can utilize standardized templates or create their own; a wide variety of colors and background adds visual impact to the range of slides one can create. Presenters must be careful to avoid cramming too much information onto presentation slides. In addition, participant pages that correspond with the slidesand include space for participant notescan easily be generated with most software packages.
2. Tear sheet pads. In using tear sheets, the following points should be remembered:
3. Overhead transparencies. For larger groups, tear sheets may not be visible to all participants. A good alternative is clean overhead transparency film that can be filled with informationsimilar to tear sheetswith transparency markers.
4. Cartoons. Comic pages in newspapers, editorial cartoons, and cartoons from magazines provide endless opportunities for humorous depictions of issues related to victim assistance, public safety, and related topics. Ensure that proper credit is listed for cartoons used and that humor is appropriate to the subject and audience. Cartoons should be blown up to fillan 8½ x 11 overhead transparency slide. They can be utilized as training aids and displayed on the overhead projector during breaks. It is always a good idea to bring paper copies of popular cartoons; many students request them for their own use.
5. Quotations. Inspirational quotations can be used judiciously to emphasize key points, as well as to link themes to some of the world's great thinkers. Quotations books are readily available in book stores and on the Internet (by utilizing a search engine with the word "quotations"). Good quotations also abound as a result of presentations; make sure to keep records in a file folder of usable quotations. Good presenters maintain a "tickler" file with their notations of quotations. It is important to always ensure proper attribution for quotations.
6. News articles. News headlines, articles, and photos can provide dramatic visuals for presentations. It is a good idea to enlarge them before copying them onto overhead transparencies. As with quotations, proper attribution is essential.
7. Current research statistics and tables. Many of the data generated by the U.S. Department of Justice (available in paper formats from the NCJRS, OVC, and other clearinghouses, as well as electronically via the Internet) provide sound research for presentations, as well as audio/visual aids. The quality of the graphic design in Justice Department publications is excellent and simply needs to be enlarged for overhead transparencies.
8. Videotapes. There are myriad videotapes that are applicable to presentations for victim services, criminal and juvenile justice, and allied professionals. OVC, for example, has produced excellent videotapes (available free from OVCRC) on "Mental Health Needs of Victims" and "News Media Coverage of Crime". It is a good idea for presenters to maintain a video library, and to request copies of videotapes they have viewed that can be helpful for presentation purposes. The quality of videotapes is key; tapes recorded beyond "third generation" are usually grainy and difficult to view. Ensure the video monitor can read encoded videotapes for closed captioning.
9. Victim-related posters. For the past 15 years, resource materials developed for victim-related commemorative weeks, as well as state and local victim awareness initiatives, have included wonderful posters that depict various themes related to victim sensitivity and victims' rights. Posters can be utilized as visuals on the walls of presentation venues, as well as copied onto overhead transparencies. It is usually a good idea to use a color copier or copy on a lighter mode to ensure clarity.
10. "Victim Vignettes." The "power of the personal story" cannot be overestimated in helping people understand the significance of victims' rights and services. Victims' personal stories, both painful and positive, add tremendous value and emotion to any criminal justice or victim-related presentation. It is essential to secure permission to utilize victims' personal stories for public venues, and protect victims' confidentiality upon request (in cases where they would like their stories to be told without direct attribution).
11. Participant handouts. Any individual handouts for participants can be "color coded" on the paper they are printed on to provide easy accessability. It is crucial that any training resources that are distributed to participants are provided either before the training program, or during the breaks. The "flurry of paper" that would otherwise occur can be very distracting to the learning process.
(See Appendix D, Presentation "Tools of the Trade," for a comprehensive list of training aids.)
"Staying on the Cutting Edge"
The tasks associated with effective presentations require that trainers "stay on the cutting edge." Maintaining current files and resources about crime and victimization, victim assistance and victims' rights, criminal and juvenile justice, and public safety is critical to offering audiences the most timely, accurate information available.
Some general guidelines for maintaining up-to-date information include:
RESOURCES FOR MAINTAINING THE CUTTING EDGE
Justice Department Clearinghouses. Within the Office of Justice Programs, the National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS) offers information and resources on a variety of topics including crime, drugs, delinquency and victimization through six clearinghouses:
The many resources available through the clearinghouses are beneficial to presenters who seek to keep current on key topics. In addition, registering with NCJRS provides an excellent resource for trainers who seek additional information about topics related to crime and victimization. Readers can sign up for material to be automatically sent based on various categories of interest.
World Wide Web. The power and scope of the Internet have many positive implications for presenters. Data and resources that a decade ago would have taken weeks or months to secure are readily available in electronic formats 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Many victim-related Web sites are hyper-linked to other similar sites to facilitate rapid access to related information. Knowledge of how to use search engines simplifies research on the Web. In addition, Web surfers should always try to affirm the veracity of information derived from the Internet and provide proper attribution for resources that are utilized for presentations. A comprehensive list of victim- and justice-related Web sites appears in the National Crime Victims' Rights Week Resource Guide, published and updated by VALOR with support from OVC.
Electronic listservs. This increasingly popular mode of electronically sharing current information about crime and victimizationas well as generating action on key public policy issuesoffers timely (and often daily) updates on important topics. Most list-serves offer free membership, which can be accessed by providing one's name and e-mail address at Web sites that sponsor list-serves.
Toll-free telephone numbers. The roster of approximately 20 national toll-free information and referral numbers relevant to crime and victimization is updated annually each year in the National Crime Victims' Rights Week Resource Guide, and can be a useful tool in maintaining the cutting edge because they link victim service providers and justice professionals to vital resources available at both the national level and in communities across the country. (A continually, updated list of toll-free numbers is available on the OVC Web site.)
Journals. A substantial body of research relevant to crime and victimization is published regularly in journals. While more of this information is becoming available in electronic format through the Internet, many journals are published for subscribers only. However, some journals are available free from libraries and can be requested through inter-library loans.
Books. Thousands of titles have been published in the area of crime and victimization. They are available at many book stores, on-line via the Internet, and at book sales sponsored at conferences.
Agency newsletters. There are nearly 200 national newsletters that address current cutting edge issues of crime and victimization, available in both paper and electronic formats. In addition, state and local victim assistance and criminal/juvenile justice newsletters often highlight current data and trends that are jurisdiction-specific.
The news media. Timely information about crime and victimization (research findings, government statistics, coverage of actual cases, etc.) can be found in both print and electronic media. Most news media also sponsor Web sites that facilitate easy electronic access.
Conferences. Excellent resources are available from seminars and workshops at conferences. A good technique is to visit workshop rooms during conference breaks to pick up resource materials that were presented. In addition, many conferences sponsor resource tables or arenas where good information is available free to conference participants.
STANDARDIZING PARTICIPANT RESOURCES
A good presenter should seek to "plant seeds" in participants that can be cultivated to grow and flourish beyond the presentation venue. In the field of victim services, such resources focus on being able to obtain continuing education for personal and professional growth as well as being able to offer information and referrals to crime victims.
Presenters should collaborate with allied professionals to develop current and cutting edge resources that can be utilized for participant resources. When a great reference document is discovered, it should be shared with others. For example, an informal network of justice and victim assistance professionals regularly share current information and referral resources that are retained in a permanent resource file and utilized for participant handouts.
Standardized participant resources can include copies of slides of key presentations (three to a page with lines for participants to take notes) that are directly related to, or an adjunct to, the key topics addressed by the presenter.
In addition, there are excellent resources for providing information and referrals for crime victims, service providers, criminal and juvenile justice professionals, and allied professionals. Many are included in each year's National Crime Victims' Rights Week Resource Guide. These include:
Participant resource packages should include a cover page with the title and date of the presentation, as well as a "table of contents" with page numbers for easy reference by presenters during the training session.
Edmunds, C., K. Lowe, M. Murray, and A. Seymour. 1999. The Ultimate Educator. National Victim Assistance Academy (Advanced). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office for Victims of Crime.
Knowles, M. S. 1980. The Modern Practice of Adult Education: From Pedagogy to Andragogy. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Seymour, A. 1987. Developing a Speakers' Bureau. Fort Worth, TX: National Center for Victim of Crime.
APPENDIX A. Benefits and Barriers
APPENDIX B.1. "ALPHA-DELTA" FACULTY OR PARTICIPANT DEBRIEFING
[Utilize Tear Sheets for this Process]
Possible topics to address:
APPENDIX B.2. SAMPLE PARTICIPANT INTRODUCTION
[Utilize Tear Sheets for this Format]
APPENDIX B.3. "Personality Plus" Participant Introduction
My Nickname Is: __________________________________________
I Work For: __________________________________________
I Wish I Could Sing Like: __________________________________________
My Favorite Saying Is: __________________________________________
Behind My Back, People Say: __________________________________________
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
"Personality Plus" Participant Introduction
My Name Is: __________________________________________
My Nickname Is: __________________________________________
I Work For: __________________________________________
I Wish I Could Sing Like: __________________________________________
My Favorite Saying Is: __________________________________________
Behind My Back, People Say: __________________________________________
APPENDIX B.4. PARTICIPANT GROUP DIVISION EXERCISE
"Hit the Road, Jack!"
Make enough copies of this exercise to match the number of groups into which you would like to divide participants. Cut slips of paper with each physical activity listed below, and provide one slip of paper to each participant. Then . . . play the song, "Hit the Road, Jack" and ask them to physically demonstrate the activity on their slip of paper, and find other participants who are doing the same activity.
Wink Your Eye
Snap Your Fingers
Flap Your Arms like a Chicken
Clap Your Hands
Twirl in Circles
APPENDIX B.5. TEAM TIME: "CHECK YOUR PULSE"
1. Do you have any questions or comments about [fill in the blank with topics that have been addressed]?
2. As a result of all the presentations so far, have you identified any:
3. Are there any other presenters or participants you'd like us to hook you up with (at breaks or lunch/this evening/later) for consultation or discussion?
4. Everything okay? Anything missing?
APPENDIX C. ACTION WORKSHEET
APPENDIX D. PRESENTATION "TOOLS OF THE TRADE"
Visit "Victims' Resources in the Information Age" for continually updated lists of Web sites relevant to victim assistance and criminal/juvenile justice:
Special thanks is extended to Steve Derene, Program Manager for the Office of Crime Victim Services at the Wisconsin Department of Justice, and Promising Strategies and Practices in Using Technology to Benefit Crime Victims, a project sponsored by the National Center for Victims of Crime with support from the Office for Victims of Crime, U.S. Department of Justice, for providing much of the Web site information included in this section.
Additional Victims' Resources from the OVC Web site: