Hate and Bias Crime

The Federal Bureau of Investigation reports that 8,759 hate crime incidents were reported to law enforcement agencies nationwide in 1996. The 1996 figures were compiled from more than 11,000 police agencies in 49 states (all but Hawaii) and the District of Columbia, representing 84 percent of the nation's population. This is an increase over the 1995 report, where 7,947 hate crime incidents were reported by 9,500 police agencies in 45 states representing 75 percent of the U.S. population. (Federal Bureau of Investigation, Criminal Justice Information Services Division. "Hate Crime - 1996." Uniform Crime Reports. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.)

Law enforcement agencies reported 5,396 hate crimes based on race; 1,401 based on religion; 1,016 on sexual orientation; 940 on ethnic background; and six for multiple reasons. Of 11,000 victims of the 8,759 incidents of hate crimes, 7,000 were attacked because of their race, including 4,600 racially motivated attacks on blacks, 1,445 on whites, and 544 on Asians and Pacific Islanders. (Ibid.)

In terms of incidents in 1996, 3,674 were anti-black, 1,106 were anti-white, 564 were anti-Hispanic, 1,109 were anti-Jewish, 757 were anti-gay men, and 150 were anti-gay women. (Ibid.)

Law enforcement agencies reported 8,935 known offenders, of which 66 percent were white and 20 percent black. (Ibid.)

Intimidation accounted for 39 percent of reported offenses; destruction of property and vandalism, 27 percent; simple assault, 16 percent; and aggravated assault, 13 percent. Twelve persons were murdered in known hate-motivated incidents in 1996. (Ibid.)

Of those victims of gender and anti-lesbian/

gay violence, 62 percent were gay men, 30 percent lesbians, and eight percent were either gay/lesbian institutions or unknown. The number of lesbians/bisexual females victimized in 1994 increased 19 percent over 1993 figures, compared to only one percent for gay/bisexual male victims. (Federal Bureau of Investigation. Characteristics of Hate Crimes in 1994, Summary of Hate Crime Data Collection. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.)

Sixty-seven percent of gay men and lesbians who declined to file a police report about their victimization perceived, or had experienced, the police to be anti-lesbian/

gay; 14 percent feared police abuse; and 40 percent feared public disclosure of their sexual orientation. (Herek, G.M. & Berrill, K.T. (1992). Hate Crimes: Confronting Violence Against Lesbians and Gay Men. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publishing.)

The number of arrests for anti-Semitic crimes reported in 1994 were double those reported in 1993. Arson and vandalism represented the anti-Semitic crimes with the most substantial increase. (1994 Audit of Anti-Semitic Incidents. New York: Anti-Defamation League.)

Sixty-four percent of all anti-Semitic vandalism incidents occurring in 1994 happened in 12 northeastern states and the District of Columbia. Western states accounted for 14 percent, while southern states accounted for 11 percent of anti-Semitic vandalism. (Ibid.)

Note: OVC makes no representation concerning the accuracy of data from non-Department of Justice sources.

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