Hate and Bias Crime

The Federal Bureau of Investigation reports that 8,049 hate crime incidents were reported to law enforcement agencies nationwide in 1997. The 8,049 incidents involved 9,861 separate offenses, 10,255 victims, and 8,474 known offenders. (Federal Bureau of Investigation. (released November 22, 1998). Crime in the United States, Uniform Crime Reports, 1997. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.)

Crimes against persons accounted for almost 70 percent of hate crime offenses reported. Crimes against property accounted for over 30 percent, while less than one percent were crimes against society. (Ibid.)

Of the hate crimes against persons, intimidation accounted for 55 percent, while simple assault and aggravated assault represented 26 percent and 18 percent, respectively. (Ibid.)

Of the 8,049 hate crime incidents reported, 4,710 were motivated by racial bias; 1,385 by religious bias; 1,102 by sexual orientation bias; 836 by ethnicity/national origin bias; 12 by disability bias; and four by multiple biases. (Ibid.)

In 1997, 67 percent of the 10,255 victims of hate/bias crimes were victims of crimes against persons, as opposed to property or society. Nearly 6 of every 10 victims were attacked because of their race, with bias against blacks counting for 39 percent of the total. (Ibid.)

Of those offenses motivated by bias by ethnicity/national origin, over half of the incidents were reported as anti-Hispanic. (Ibid.)

Of those offense motivated by bias against religious orientation, over three-fourths were based upon anti-Jewish bias. (Ibid.)

Fourteen percent of all victims of hate/bias crimes were victims of crimes motivated by bias against sexual orientation; 66 percent of these were victims of specifically anti-male homosexual bias, and 17 percent specifically anti-female homosexual bias. (Ibid.)

In terms of incidents in 1997, 3,120 were anti-black, 993 were anti-white, 1,087 were anti-Jewish, 347 were anti-Asian/Pacific Islander, 36 were anti-American Indian/Alaskan native, 760 were anti-gay men, and 188 were anti-gay women. (There were no Hispanic numbers in this year's report.) (Ibid.)

Of the known offenders, 63 percent were white and 19 percent black. (Ibid.)

Of those victims of gender and anti-lesbian/

gay violence, 62 percent were gay men, 30 percent lesbians, and eight percent were either gay/lesbian institutions or unknown. (Federal Bureau of Investigation. Characteristics of Hate Crimes in 1994, Summary of Hate Crime Data Collection. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.)

The number of arrests for anti-Semitic crimes reported in 1994 were double those reported in 1993. Arson and vandalism represented the anti-Semitic crimes with the most substantial increase. (1994 Audit of Anti-Semitic Incidents. New York: Anti-Defamation League.)

Note: OVC makes no representation concerning the accuracy of data from non-Department of Justice sources.

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