POLICING IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE: Comparing Firsthand Knowledge with Experience from the West,
© 1996 College of Police and Security Studies, Slovenia


Gustßv DianiÜka
Ivan čimov_ek

The contribution is focused on the research project with the title " Constitution of Police Security Science" which is running by the Slovak Academy of Police Corps in Bratislava. Research team leader is Col. Lt. Prof. Assoc. Dr. Ivan čimov_ek, Ph.D., the Head of Department for Criminalistics and Forensic Sciences.

The research projects granted by the Slovak Government as a state order for a strategy of society, science and technique developments.

The main aim of this research project is a constitution of a new scientific discipline - Police Security Science supposed to be a fundamental theory and methodology for all practical activities of police forces and security services on the internal social and state security field.

The research project Constitution of Police Security Science based on a definition of gnozeologic and social facilities and presumptions for its creation. It emanates from social sciences, common security and special security aspects. The research project focused on a definition of fundamental components which Police Security Science should be consists of and its structure, basic functions and main tasks as well.

After social and state changes in 1989 the Slovak police force faced a new social and political situation. For this situation was characteristic an extraordinary growth of criminality and an infiltration of organised international crime. The police force had to fulfil a new social role to serve people, to protect their freedoms and rights in democratic society.

Additions to new police force tasks, they had to fight with new antisocial phenomenon in a very short time. Police force and security services had not enough experience and had to learn in the course of lot changes.

The insufficient technical equipment and low level of professional qualification have determined the hard working conditions for police and security activities in the period of social and political transmission.

In those hard conditions the Slovak republic was able to rebuild police force and security services that fulfilled their new tasks on relative good level comparable with the other countries. Slovak republic created a new system of police training and education, beginning from the special police training centres for police recruits and ending with the police academy. Academy provided police and security special education and training for high level rank of police officers and security services managers. The education in Academy is on the university level and Academy is one of Slovak universities.

The favourable logistic, organisational and personal condition in police academy has created excellent possibilities for special research projects focused on police and security activities in democratic society.

It is evident, that the changed security situation (specially infiltrated international and scientific crime), require scientific valuations and a theoretical support police and security services activities in that new situation. From those reasons the Slovak police academy has begun with a special research project named Constitution Police Security Science.

The main aim of that research project is to give the police force and security services a theory, a methodology, a system of sufficient effective methods and explicit, certain and correct conceptual apparatus.

Current police and security theory and methodology are on low level. Only in few issues, oriented on particular aspects of police and security activities, were elaborated several problems of the different crime's investigation, but there remained on the pragmatic and empirical level, it means on different methods without own methodology.

The creation of a relative independent police security theory (police theory or system of police theories) should surmount existing fragmentary efforts and support a systematic scientific approach to the existing large base of practical police and security knowledge.

The crossing over several steps determines the constitution of Police Security Science. There are following steps:

Gnozeological presumptions of a Police Security Science constitution are basic philosophical presumptions for each scientific discipline. The process of its constitution goes independent, apart the immediate and intensive influence of philosophy. The philosophy influences in a creation of Police Security Science mediately (through its methodology). Philosophy goes in Police Security Science implicitive and creates its universal theoretical and methodological starting points.

Social presumptions for Police Security Science creation determined by social needs and social practice. A need of security is a fundamental need of each individual in modern society. Each existing social system required certain self protecting mechanisms and measures. In the democratic state the citizen protection is one of fundamental civil freedoms and rights.

In social level of the police security science constitution appear needs to improve citizen security. Police security science should be a part of armed-security state system that consists of those components such as different political, diplomatically, juridical, economic, humanitarian and research scientifically institutions with external and internal areas of their activities.

The police security science should give theoretical reasons for their activities as a system of scientific knowledge how to secure the defence and the protection of democratic society in external and internal space. System of security science, which not constituted till now, should consist of three parts:

For social-scientific presumptions of police security science constitution are necessary to define those scientific disciplines that named sciences with middle reach. The applicability of their principal, regularities, conceptual apparatus and methods is very extensive and those sciences create natural theoretical and methodological starting points for the other scientific disciplines, police security science including.

In those sciences with narrow relation with police security science we can include those which are components of social science system. In concrete there are history, law, criminology, criminalistics (crime science and forensic sciences), sociology, psychology and pedagogy. Evidently we can add the next disciplines, if it will be necessary during running our research project.

A systematically integration of social scientifically knowledge in process of a constitution of police security science gives a possibility for a creation new knowledge, which are able to make higher power for integrity system and speciality of that new science. In the same level it initiatives a constitution of new applicable disciplines of police security sciences such as police law, police management, police psychology, police deontology, etc.

The objects of that research project are regularity that creates a subject of police security science. A definition of scientific subject requires certain theoretical universality of different police security activities. There is necessary to generalise those components that are not subjects of research by the other scientific disciplines.

The subject of police security science created by:

The next regularities followed:

Our research activity focused also on a definition of contents of police-security science that should create by three special police and security disciplines on their investigative, processual investigative and preventive-disciplinary activities. Those three disciplines have close internal logic-structural relations.

The structure of police security science should follow:

  1. Police discipline of police crime investigation that consists of:
  2. Police processual investigation discipline that consists of:
  3. Police security discipline of preventive - disciplinary activities that consist of:

The research activity also focused on main tasks and functions of police security science, specially on its analytic, methodological, pragmatic and prognostic functions. Until now police theory concentrated only on several aspects of its analytic and pragmatic functions.

Police security science has to develop own theory of police security activities. A system of that theory should be structured to response universal common-scientific methods of learning and searching and their transformation to special police security areas.

A theory of police security activities should be able to play a role of theoretical and practical reflection of objective existing police security situations. It should positive influence a level of controls, preventive and repressive activities of police security organs in public order, citizens and their property protection.

The system of police security activity's theory is multilevel with inter-disciplines' constructions on continuous scientific disciplines. The system is adequate with multilevel structure of police and security services. It required a reflection of their activities and it can be a measure for their perspective corrections of organisation structures.

The corrections have to secure an adequate and an effective reaction on the dynamic changing objective police security situations to occur an effective service for citizen security and protection of state constitutional order.

The main aim of the constitution of police security science is to improve current system of police security practice activities and to reach a level, where the system is an organic harmonious system of scientific knowledge.

Police security science should be able to give scientific reasonable answers on police and security services questions and needs.

In the end we can say in on sentence the constitution of police security science means to pass from the generalisation of practice police and security experience to the scientific and methodological level of police security activities.

The members of the research team in the Slovak police academy are full aware a lot of difficulties and the originality of that research project. From those reasons they appreciate every offer for collaboration and ex-change of information and experiences on that field. Specially they would like to thank the organisers of this conference for an excellent occasion to present our conceptions, hoping in favourable responses and support.

Table of Contents | Utilization of the International Experience of the Police Recruiting, Selection and Training in the Russian Federation

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