POLICING IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE: Comparing Firsthand Knowledge with Experience from the West,
© 1996 College of Police and Security Studies, Slovenia


EUROPEAN SYSTEMS OF POLICE EDUCATION AND TRAINING

Milan Pagon, Bojana Virjent-Novak
Melita Djuric, Branko Lobnikar

The papers presents results of a survey on systems of police education and training in Europe. Seventeen European countries participated in the mail survey. The results indicate that European countries have very different systems of police education and training. In ten countries it is possible to obtain a high-school level police education (duration of schooling between one and four years). Five countries also have police education leading to an associate degree (two years in duration). In twelve countries it is possible to obtain a three-year higher professional education degree within the system of police education. Bachelor's degree can be obtained in eight out of seventeen surveyed countries, master's degree in five, and doctoral degree in four countries. Basic training for police officers in the surveyed countries takes between four months and four years, followed over years by various forms of specialized training and management training. The results are discussed in the light of European integration and international cooperation. A case is made for standardization in the area of police education and training. The authors recommend establishing three European centers for "training the trainers" and three graduate schools of criminal justice.

INTRODUCTION

As one tries to find a common denominator among European countries in any field or domain, one realizes how very different we really are. No wonder, then, that any attempt at describing both the history and the current state of European systems of police education and training is a very venturesome attempt. As Hebenton and Thomas (1995) point out, "the history of policing modern Europe has been an area of study marked more by its neglect, until recent years. []This area of neglect has slowly been corrected as a history of policing and its social and political context in various European states has started to be pieced together" (p. 8). For the history of European systems of police education and training, such 'piecing together' is yet to be made. It is beyond the scope of this paper to present a detailed history of European police education and training. Instead, we will only illustrate this history by listing some brief, fragmented facts, to set the stage for a discussion about the current situation.

In France in the 19th century, the police were recruited from the army and civil public. There was a constant problem of deficient professional training for the candidates The police superiors recognized quite soon that effective police work depended on specialized training for police job. The first police training schools were established in Paris in 1883 and Bordeaux and Lyons in 1898. The courses were compulsory for new policemen and lasted 3 months for literate and 6-10 months for illiterate candidates. They consisted of writing dictation, theory of police work, conversations, correction of homework and telegraphy. After 3 months of training the policemen had to be able to use a telephone and telegraph, had to know their traffic island, had to render artificial respiration, know laws and regulations, regulate traffic and solve conflicts. They were also taught to disperse the crowd and recognize the card of a diplomatic representative. In 1914, C. Hennion established a professional school for the prefecture police. It offered a six-month training for policemen and police inspectors. The candidates had to learn police skills and the social role of the police was especially stressed (BerliPre, 1987).

In Finland, the first units to provide basic training for policemen were set up at the end of the 19th century. The need for trained police became particularly acute during the unsettled period in 1905 when the police had to safeguard the government position. This emergency situation dictated the need for additional training of policemen to perform their job. The level of general education among police staff was inadequate, for most recruits had not even attended primary school and only few could write. In 1918, the first police school was founded in Helsinki where policemen could get basic knowledge and military drill. After 1920, big changes were introduced into police work. New equipment (cars, motor cycles) was purchased and the police job became a proper instead a temporary profession. Gradually, training periods became longer and took more professional content. Special courses for the criminal police were introduced in 1923. In 1926, basic police training was transferred from the police school to the provinces. The State Police School continued to train superintendents, sergeants and detectives. However, most police officers were still sent into the field without any real police training. By the 1930s, there was still no real police training system. In practice, new recruits were instructed by their more experienced colleagues. In 1930, the Mobile Police Unit was established and designed to maintain order in times of political unrest and take care of recruits training. Police training was not formally regulated before 1962 when the Police Academy was established. It was responsible for cadet courses and it also introduced special courses. In 1969, the Police Decree defined that it is compulsory to finish the police academy course for everybody who wants to work within the police. In 1973, the Police Course Center was set up within the academy and renamed into the Police School in 1986 (Hietaniemi, 1995).

As the German states unified in 1870, each state (or Land) became responsible for its own policing. The Franco/Prussian model was the preferred model of policing. Recruitment was largely from the military but, as in France, civil police training schools began to be opened toward the end of the century (Reinke, 199l, cited in Hebenton and Thomas, 1995). Later development of police organization of the Weimar Republic was interrupted by increasing influence of national socialism which turned the police organization into the tool of nazi dictatorship. Thus we cannot speak about the development of the modern German police before the year 1945 when the German police was developing in two separate directions: the development of the Western German police was influenced by the Americans, English and French, and the East German police was influenced by the Soviet Union. In the western zones, there was the problem of recruiting new policemen after the year 1945. The most of the candidates used to work as policemen before the Second World War and had to prove they were not pro-nazi oriented any more. The majority had finished primary education or vocational education with the completed "Hauptschule." The allies started to establish police schools in 1945 and, having no other possibilities, they employed teachers with military skills. They had no professional police skills or teaching qualifications either. In the period 1945-1959 there were 10 seminars on pedagogy at the Hiltrup police institute. Following public unrest in 1960, police schools started to employed teaching professionals, psychologists, political scientists and sociologists. (Schulte, 1995). In the late 60s, more attention was paid to police training. In 1967, the guidelines for police training were defined at the conference of the ministers of the interior. To enter the police force the recruits were required to have completed intermediate education. The courses lasted from 2,5 to 3 years and included 25 professional subjects. In 1975, the topics of these subjects were modernized. The higher education professional schools ("Fachhochschulen") were established in the 70s. Police training in these institutions took three years and the aim was to add professional and scientific knowledge as well as practically oriented knowledge to police work. With this kind of training the students acquire the same kind of education as other employees in the state administration (see Virjent-Novak, 1995, for a review of higher police education in Germany).

As can be implied from the above illustration, one common characteristic exists among European systems of police education and training, which sets them apart from the United States system, namely the lack of distinction between training and education. In the United States, police organizations are typically involved only in training which is performed by police academies. Police academies are not perceived as educational institutions in the United States, although it is not uncommon that trainees are given a certain number of credit hours that can be applied toward their college education. According to the recommendations of the National Commission for standards and goals in criminal justice from 1983 (Harris, 1989), the training at police academies should be of at least 400 hours (10 weeks) in duration, and it should include the following proportion of various subjects:

The formal higher education in the United States, on the other hand, is performed only by colleges and universities, none of which is part of any police organization. The history and development of American police is not at the same time the history of American police education, as is the case in Europe. So, when police organizations in the United States require a certain level of education as a criterion (for hiring, promotion, etc.) it is understood that they are talking about an "external" education, obtained outside police. While the federal law enforcement agencies typically require a college degree, the entry level educational requirements among the state law enforcement agencies in the United States vary from two agencies where such a requirement is not set at all, to five agencies that require a college degree. Between these two extremes we find requirements such as a high school degree, 60 college credit hours, etc. A lot of agencies require 120 credit hours, but this requirement can be waived if the candidate has extensive law enforcement experience (Torres, 1989a, 1989b).

Although it is not possible to single out one academic major most common among American police officers with a college degree, a criminal justice major would undoubtedly make it high on the list. A passage from Morn (1995) clarifies semantic confusion surrounding criminal justice:

"Academic criminal justice - the studying and teaching of crime, police, law and legal processes, and corrections - is of recent origin in higher education. Beginning in the 1920s and 1930s, and accelerating in the 1970s, it has become a significant academic mainstay in second- and third-rank colleges and universities. Considerable semantic confusion surrounding criminal justice needs clarifying. Particularly in the popular mind the phrase frequently means law and legal processes; this historic interpretation is still used in many European countries today, but it is too narrow and does not take into account the academic politicians at the center of this study. In addition, [] criminologists have long tried to lay claim to the field. Many of the early people in criminal justice called themselves criminologists. The distinction between criminal justice and criminology must be kept clear. The former, indeed, does include criminology but expands to encompass the study of the agencies that combat crime. Although the phrase criminology is used a lot in this history, this work is not about classic criminology, or the sociologically based study of crime and its treatment. This is the history of an academic field that began as law enforcement or police science and developed to encompass issues and agencies addressing crime." (p. ix).

Therefore, we claim that a distinction between training and education is more clearly articulated in the United States than it is in Europe. Although such distinction might become less clear when it comes to comparing the content of training at some of the more sophisticated law enforcement academies and some university programs in criminal justice, one thing is for sure: in the United States, law enforcement academies do not grant formal degrees, and colleges and universities do not train for particular positions within a particular police agency.

In Europe, as we saw from our illustrative cases, police education grew out of police training, to the same extent that police educational institutions (not found in the United States) grew out of police training institutions. As a broad generalization, as the needs for more knowledge in police were increasing, police training institutions were adding more and more education to their training, to the point that they either evolved into an educational institution within the police organization, or a separate institution was formed to exclusively serve the educational needs of police. Some of these institutions eventually opened their doors to non- police students, as well. Based on anecdotal evidence, we claim that European police education, given its training roots, emphasizes knowledge and skills necessary for the actual performance of police duties (criminal law, criminalistics, investigative procedures, forensics, etc.), thus differs from criminal justice and law enforcement programs in the United States which emphasize the study of crime, police, law and legal processes, corrections, and police administration.

Considering that this development of police training and education, roughly sketched above, had its own dynamics in every of the European countries, and considering all the recent changes on a geopolitical face of Europe, it is no surprise that the situation regarding European systems of police education and training is an utterly confusing one. One can hear of police colleges that train police officers, police academies that grant university-level degrees, schools outside police that exclusively admit police officers, university-level degree granting institutions that prepare for a certain rank within a police hierarchy, etc.

The present study aims at introducing more clarity in a discussion about European police systems of education and training. It tries to look beyond the institutions' names, using some criteria to determine the true nature of various police training and educational institutions. The study does not try to be a comprehensive account of all European countries' systems of police training and education. Rather, it tries to show the differences in these system, to be able to demonstrate the need for some level of standardization in the light of European integration and international cooperation.

METHOD

Participants and Procedure

The questionnaires on police education and training systems were sent to 74 different addresses in 32 European countries. We also asked 22 diplomatic-consular missions of European countries in Slovenia for help in distributing the questionnaires. We received 21 completed questionnaires from 17 European countries (Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Macedonia, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, the Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, and Ukraine). There were two completed questionnaires from Austria and Germany and three from Belgium (two for the police and one for gendarmerie). In terms of countries, the response rate was 53,13%.

In addition to the 17 countries included in our analysis, the answers were sent from Luxembourg, Portugal, and Sweden. Luxembourg and Portugal sent the information on their training systems, rather than the completed questionnaires, so we were not able to include their answers in our analysis. The answer from the Swedish police academy was that Sweden was going to introduce substantive changes into their police training system at the end of 1996, so they did not find a questionnaire describing their current situation relevant.

The Questionnaire

A 79-item questionnaire was developed for this study. It consisted of two parts. The first part-with 64 questions-was asking about police education, and the second one-with 15 question-about police training. To avoid confusion, we included the definitions of the expressions 'police education' and 'police training' at the beginning of the questionnaire.

We defined police education as a process of imparting or acquiring general or particular police-related knowledge that leads to obtaining a certain degree (e.g., high school diploma, associate degree, professional higher education degree, bachelor's degree, master's degree, doctoral degree). Typically, police educational programs expand over several years.

We defined police training as a process of imparting or acquiring particular knowledge or skills necessary for police work that does not lead to any kind of degree, but might (or might not) end with some form of certificate. Typically, police training programs are shorter than educational programs; they can be as short as one day or as long as a year or more.

In the first part of the questionnaire, we defined-and asked questions about-various degrees obtained at educational institutions, as follows:

High school degree - a degree obtained by schooling beyond the elementary school, typically after 12th or 13th school year (in some countries called a "Gymnasium" degree).

Associate degree - a degree granted by a college or university for the completion of two years of study.

Higher professional education degree - a degree granted by a college or professional higher educational institution for the completion of a three-year professional program of study (in Germany called a "Fachhochschule" degree).

Bachelor's degree - a degree awarded by a college or university to a person who has completed undergraduate studies (typically 4-5 years in length).

Master's degree - the first graduate degree awarded by a university (typically 2-3 years of study beyond the bachelor's degree).

Doctoral degree - the highest degree awarded by a university (typically 3-4 years of study and/or research beyond the master's degree).

Throughout the questionnaire we used the term police officer to indicate all policemen and policewomen, regardless of their rank.

In the second part of the questionnaire, we differentiated between-and were asking questions about-the following types of police training:

Basic training - a training provided for those entering the Police at the entry level, without prior exposure to police work, meant to train them in basic police tasks and skills.

Specialized training - additional training in various areas of police work (traffic, criminal investigation, juvenile, hostage negotiations, dog handling, etc.).

Management training - a training provided for higher ranking police officers who are in charge of supervising the work of other police officers.

The questionnaire was translated both into German and English language.

RESULTS

Police Education

Following are the results of the analysis of the first part of the questionnaire concerning police education. We will present the results by different levels of police education.

High school level police education

Among 17 countries included in our analysis, there are 10 where high school level of police education can be obtained. These countries are Croatia, the Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Macedonia, the Netherlands, the Slovak Republic, Slovenia, and Turkey. In five countries (Croatia, Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, and the Slovak Republic) the students have an obligation to become employees of the Police as they enter the school. In seven countries (Croatia, the Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Macedonia, the Slovak Republic, and Slovenia) the police high schools are operated by the Police organizations themselves. In Hungary, the school is not a part of the Police, but offers police curricula. In the Netherlands, the police high school is managed by a separate Police Institute, financed by the government. In Turkey, the Police College also provides high school level police education. Duration and structure of high school level police education are shown in Table 1.

As can be seen from Table 1, there are substantial differences among countries regarding all aspects of high school level of police education. In some countries (Germany, Turkey, Hungary, Slovenia, and the Czech Republic) the programs are more or less general in nature, with no or very few law and police related subjects, while in the others (the Slovak Republic, the Netherlands, Macedonia, and Croatia) law, criminalistics, and police related subjects constitute a large part of their curricula.

These programs take between one and four years to complete. In Croatia, for example, students first complete two years of a regular ("external") high school, after which they continue their education at the police high school. Half of the countries with high school level police education require students to work for the Police after graduation (from 3 to 8 years), while the other half does not put forth such a requirement.

In all except one country (the Netherlands), the high-school diploma is externally valid (it is recognized as a high-school diploma outside the police). Both male and female students are eligible to study at the police high schools in all countries except Turkey, Croatia and Slovenia where enrollment is available to male students only. After graduating from the police high school, the graduates in the Netherlands and the Slovak Republic can start working as police officers immediately, fully performing the police work. In Croatia, Finland, Macedonia, and Slovenia, new police officers receive on-the-job training before starting to perform the police work independently. In four other countries (Germany, Turkey, Hungary, and the Czech Republic) the graduates have to enroll in some form of police training before they start working as police officers.

Associate level police education

The data shows that the associate level of police education is attainable in five countries: Germany, Belgium (for the gendarmerie but not for the police), Finland, the Slovak Republic, and Ukraine. This level of education can be obtained in the educational institutions (colleges, academies), which are operated by the Police. To enroll in the associate level police education, the candidates from these five countries have to be the employees of the Police, and all countries, except Ukraine, demand at least two years of previous police experience. In Germany and Finland, the associate graduates have no obligation to work for the Police, in the Slovak Republic the graduates have to work 10 years for the Police, in the Belgium gendarmerie they have the obligation to work 1,5 times of their study. In Ukraine, this question has not been regulated legally yet. Proportion of different subject areas in the curricula leading to an associate degree are shown in Table 2. There is no data for Germany in the table, as they did not provide the answer to that question.

As can be seen from the table, the programs differ among countries, although there is less variance than in the case of high school level programs. Compared to those programs, we can see a significantly smaller proportion of law subjects in the case of the Slovak Republic, and increase of criminalistics, criminology, and other police related subjects in the case of Finland.

In Finland, the Slovak Republic, and Ukraine, education obtained at this level is externally valid and is recognized as an associate degree outside the Police. In Belgium, this procedure is currently being regulated, while the associate level of police education is valid only inside the Police in Germany. In all five countries, studying at this level of police education is available both to male and female students. After finishing their studies, the graduates in Germany, the Slovak Republic, and Ukraine, can immediately start performing the police work, while in Finland and the Belgian gendarmerie, the graduates first receive on-the-job training. In three countries the associate level of police education by itself guarantees a certain rank in the police hierarchy (in Germany: "Polizei/Kriminalrad," in Belgium: "Opperwachtmeester," in Ukraine: lieutenant). In Finland and the Slovak Republic, graduating from the school offering associate level police education does not guarantee a certain rank.

Table 1 - The high school level police education




                                           GERMANY      NETHER      TURKEY    FINLAND   HUNG-   SLOVAK   CZECH   MACE-   CROATIA    SLOV-

                                                        -LANDS                          ARY     REPUB.   REPUB.  DONIA              ENIA



Duration of schooling at the high          1 year      1,5 years   4 years   2 years  2 years  1 year  4 years 4 years  2,5 years 4 years

school that offers police education

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Proportion of different subject areas 

within the curriculum of the high 

school that offers police education:

LAW                                         0%            30%         0%       20%       8%      60%      15%     20%      8,5%     12,9%

POLICE ADMINISTRATION &                     0%             5%         0%       20%       0%      10%      20%     20%     13%        6,2%

MANAGEMENT

CRIMINALISTICS &                            0%            25%         0%       20%       8%      10%      10%     25%     17%        6,2%

CRIMINOLOGY

OTHER POLICE RELATED                        0%            25%         0%       20%       4%      10%       0%     10%     31,5%      4,5%

SUBJECTS

GENERAL SUBJECTS                          100%            15%       100%       20%      80%      10%      55%     25%     30%       70,2%

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Obligation to work for the Police for a    NO             NO        YES        NO       NO       YES      NO      YES     YES        YES

certain period of time after graduating                           (4 years)                   (3 years)        (8 years)(4years)  (4 years)

from the high school that offers police 

education

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Table 2 - Proportion of different subject areas in the curricula leading to an associate degree




                                              BELGUIM          FINLAND            SLOVAK           UKRAINE

                                              (Gendarmerie)                       REPUBLIC

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Proportion of different subject areas 

within the curriculum of the school that 

offers associate level police education:

LAW                                               20%           20%                 29,3%             20%

POLICE ADMINISTRATION&                            20%           10%                  7,7%             15%

MANAGEMENT

CRIMINALISTICS & CRIMINOLOGY                      20%           30%                  9,9%             20%

OTHER POLICE RELATED                              20%           30%                 38,5%             25%

SUBJECTS

GENERAL SUBJECTS                                  20%           10%                 14,6%             20%

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Higher professional police education

According to our data, higher professional police education is performed in 12 European countries: Germany, Norway, Belgium (gendarmerie), Greece, Finland, Poland, Hungary, the Slovak Republic, the Czech Republic, Ukraine, Croatia, and Slovenia. It is performed by the institutions (colleges, academies, etc.) which are operated by the Police or the Ministry of Internal Affairs. In Slovenia, the College of Police and Security Studies, which is a part of the Ministry of the Interior, is at the same time an affiliated member of the University of Ljubljana. To enroll in the school that offers higher professional police education, the students in Norway, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Slovenia do not have to be employed by the Police. In other countries, the students at the higher professional police institution are or have to become the employees of the Police. In seven European countries (Norway, Belgium-gendarmerie, Greece, Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Slovenia) students do not need any previous police experience to enroll in the school. In other countries at least two years of police experience are required from the students. In Germany, higher professional police education is also offered by the higher professional education institutions ("Fachhochschulen") for administration. Those schools, while independent of the Police, only admit police employees of a certain rank into their police educational programs. In all 12 countries, the higher professional police education degree obtained from these schools is externally valid and recognized. Proportion of different subject areas in the curricula leading to a higher professional education degree are shown in Table 3. There is no data for the Slovak Republic in Table 2, because they did not provide the answer to that question.

We can see from Table 3 that the higher professional police education programs can be broadly divided into three groups. In the first group, there are programs dominated by law (in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic, and Ukraine). In the second group, there programs emphasizing police related subjects, law, criminalistics, and criminology, while at the same time lacking or even omitting police administration and management subjects (in Germany- uniformed police, Germany-criminal police, and Hungary). In the third group, there are programs with a balanced mixture of all subjects (in Belgium-gendarmerie, Croatia, Greece, Finland, and Norway). The only exception in the last group is Norway, with no general subjects in its program.

Studying to obtain this level of education is available to male and female students. After finishing their studies, the graduates in Norway, Poland, Hungary, the Slovak Republic, the Czech Republic, and Ukraine, start working as police officers immediately, with no additional training. In Germany, Greece, Finland, and Croatia, the graduates first receive on-the-job training. In Belgium, the higher professional police program forms a part of BA study. In Slovenia, additional training depends on previous work experience. The degree from these schools guarantees a certain rank in police hierarchy in Germany ("Polizei/ Kriminalkommisar"), Greece, Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Ukraine, and Croatia. In other countries, this is not the case.

Bachelor's level police education

Nine countries (the Netherlands, Belgium-gendarmerie, Turkey, Greece, Switzerland, Finland, the Slovak Republic, Ukraine, and Croatia) perform bachelor's level police education. In Hungary, the candidates who graduate from the police college have to pass the state examinations to obtain a bachelor's degree. The program for this level of education is performed in the nine countries at the institutions (colleges or academies) operated by the Police, except the Netherlands, where the institution is managed by the government, and Finland, where the police college is operated by the police in cooperation with the university.

In all the countries, except Turkey, Switzerland, and Croatia, the candidates enrolling in the bachelor's level police education have to be or become employees of the Police. Previous police experience is required in Finland and the Slovak Republic. In Belgian gendarmerie, the graduates are required to work for the gendarmerie 1,5 times of the study time. In Turkey, the graduates have to work 4 years for the Police, in Croatia 5 years and in Greece and the Slovak Republic 10 years. In other countries there is no obligation to work for the Police after graduation. Proportion of different subject areas in the curricula leading to a bachelor's degree and duration of the programs are shown in Table 4. There is no data for the Slovak Republic shown in the table, as they did not answer the question regarding the proportion of subject areas.

The bachelor's program in the Slovak Republic takes three years. As can be seen from the table, the content of the bachelor's programs is more balanced as was the case with the higher professional police degrees. Although all the curricula contain a mixture of various disciplines, we can see that the programs in Croatia and the Czech Republic emphasize criminalistics and criminology, the program in Ukraine emphasizes law, the program in Finland emphasizes police administration and management, while the program in Turkey emphasizes more general subjects.

In all the countries, except the Netherlands, the degrees are externally valid and recognized. Studying is available to male and female students in all the countries. The degree from the schools that offer bachelor's level police education guarantees a certain rank in the police hierarchy in Belgium, Turkey, Greece, Ukraine, and Croatia. Additional training depends on previous police experience, in most cases the graduate receives on-the-job training.

Table 3 -Proportion of different subject areas in the curricula leading to a higher professional education degree




                                               GERM-        GERM-         NOR-     BELG-       GREE-    FINLA-   POL-   HUNG-   CZECH    UKRA-    CROA-    SLOV-

                                               ANY          ANY           WAY      IUM         CE       ND       AND    ARY     REP.     INE      TIA      ENIA

                                              (Uniformed   ('Kriminal-            (Genderm-

                                               police)       polizei')              arie)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Proportion of different subject areas 

within the curriculum of the school that 

offers higher professional police 

education:

LAW                                             26,6%         26,6%       17%       10%         30%      10%    40%     25%     30%       30%     21,8%    34,43%

POLICE ADMINISTRATION &                          0%            0%         33%       10%         10%      40%     2%      4%     15%       15%     12%       9,02%

MANAGEMENT

CRIMINALISTICS & CRIMINOLOGY                    16,6%         26,6%       17%       10%         20%      40%    20%     10%     20%       20%     22,6%    11,47%

OTHER POLICE RELATED                            36,6%         26,6%       33%       20%         30%      10%    30%     24%     20%       20%     28%      11,47%

SUBJECTS

GENERAL SUBJECTS                                20,0%         20%          0%       50%         10%      20%     8%     37%     15%       15%     15,5%    33,61%

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Table 4 - Proportion of different subject areas in the curricula leading to a bachelor's degree and duration of the programs




                                                     NETHER-   BELGIUM     TURKEY   GREECE   CZECH        FINLAND    UKRAINE       CROATIA

                                                     LANDS     (Gendarm-                     REPUBLIK

                                                               erie)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Proportion of different subject areas within the 

curriculum of the school that offers bachelor's 

level police education:

LAW                                                   20%        20%         25%      30%       10%         10%         40%           5,6%

POLICE ADMINISTRATION &                               25%        10%          4%      20%       10%         40%         10%           10%

MANAGEMENT

CRIMINALISTICS & CRIMINOLOGY                          25%        30%          5%      20%       60%         20%         10%           42,2%

OTHER POLICE RELATED SUBJECTS                         20%        20%         27%      20%        0%         10%         10%           26,7%

GENERAL SUBJECTS                                      10%        20%         39%      10%       20%         20%         30%           15,5%

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Duration of the program leading to a bachelor's        4          4           4        4         4           3           4            2 years after

degree                                               years      years       years    years     years       years       years          professional

                                                                                                                                      degree

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Master's & doctoral level police education

Master's level police education is attainable in five of the surveyed countries (Switzerland, Finland, the Slovak Republic, Ukraine, and Croatia). Doctoral level police education is performed in Switzerland, Finland, the Slovak Republic, and Ukraine. In the Slovak Republic, Ukraine, and Croatia, the postgraduate study is organized in the institutions operated by the Police. In Switzerland, the postgraduate study is organized at the educational institution which is not associated with the Police but offers the police postgraduate program. In Finland, the postgraduate study is performed in cooperation with the university. The candidates who enroll in the postgraduate study in Finland, the Slovak Republic, and Ukraine, have to be the employees of the Police. This is not the case in Switzerland and Croatia. Previous police experience is a prerequisite for master's and doctoral study in Finland, the Slovak Republic, and Ukraine. In Switzerland and Croatia, no previous police experience is required. The master's and doctoral degrees are externally valid in all of the above mentioned countries. The program for master's degree takes between two and four years, while the doctoral degree takes between three and five years after obtaining the master's degree. The postgraduate studies are available to male and female candidates. The master's and doctoral degrees do not guarantee a certain rank in the police hierarchy in any of these countries.

Police Training

Following are the results of the analysis of the second part of the questionnaire concerning police training. As described earlier, we defined police training as a process of imparting or acquiring particular knowledge or skills necessary for police work that does not lead to any kind of degree, but might (or might not) end with some form of certificate. Typically, police training programs are shorter than educational programs; they can be as short as one day or as long as a year or more. We will present the results by different types of police training.

Basic police training

Structure of entrants to police forces in terms of their previous education, and duration of the basic police training are shown in Table 5. We can see that duration of basic police training varies from four months to four years. While the majority of countries does not accept candidates with less than a high school degree, there are six countries in our sample that admit candidates without a completed high school degree (Germany, Austria, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Finland, and the Czech Republic). Three countries (Greece, the Slovak Republic, and Slovenia) exclusively recruit candidates with a high school diploma, while twelve countries recruit candidates with higher degrees, too. It has to be noted that in Slovenia this only holds for candidates for entry level positions in the uniformed police, while the recruits for the criminal investigation division typically have an associate or even bachelor's degree.

In Austria, Belgium-police, Turkey, Greece, and the Czech Republic, all the basic police training is performed in the police training centers, while in other countries they have a combination of training in the police training centers and on-the-job training. A duration and a content of training does not differ based on the candidates' previous education in the majority of surveyed countries. In some countries (the Netherlands, Poland, and Hungary) the training is shortened for candidates with higher levels of education. In Austria, Turkey, Hungary, the Slovak Republic, the Czech Republic, Croatia, and Slovenia, the police training centers are organized within the ministries of the interior, state, or local police. In the Netherlands, the center for basic police training has a status of a public institution. In almost all of these centers, they use both full-time and part-time instructors, the latter being those who still work as police officers in their units. The staff typically includes non-police personnel and teachers from police educational institutions as well.

Typical subjects and police tasks taught in the basic training are: law (traffic, penal, civil, penal procedure, criminal, criminal procedure), general legal and administrative knowledge, psychology, crime prevention, youth problems, drug related problems, informatics, criminalistics, crime scene investigation, patrolling, stopping vehicles, crime-related information gathering, witness interviewing, intervening in public disorders, and history of law enforcement.

Typical skills taught in the basic training are: criminal evidence handling, traffic regulation, self-defense, swimming, shooting, report writing, first aid, communication, using computers, public relations, crowd control, using baton, handcuffs, gathering information, using right police procedure, documenting, using technical equipment, cooperation in group, decision-making, communication, administrative skills, foreign languages, and physical training.

Specialized police training

Another area within police training is specialized police training, i.e., an additional training in various areas of police work (traffic, criminal investigation, juvenile, hostage negotiations, dog handling, etc.). As many police forces are getting to realize that police work is far to complex to be able to teach everything that police officers need to know during the basic police training, specialized police training is getting increasingly important. The structure and quantity of specialized training in the surveyed countries are shown in Table 6. There is no data for Turkey shown in the table, as they did not answer that question.

As can be seen from the table, in five countries (Belgium-police, Poland, the Czech Republic, Croatia, and Slovenia) specialized training is performed exclusively in the training centers. In five countries (Norway, Belgium-gendarmerie, Greece, Switzerland, and Finland) specialized training is always a combination of training in the police training centers and on-the- job training, while in other countries (Germany, Austria, the Netherlands, Hungary, the Slovak Republic, and Macedonia) some forms of specialized training take place only in a training center, some only on the job, and some are a combination of both.

In Germany, the most common subjects of specialized police training are connected with day to day police work. These include language courses, seminars on law issues and other issues such as traffic, criminalistics and criminology, data maintaining, conflict resolution, etc. Similar issues are dealt with in specialized police training in Austria, including shooting and training in various arrest procedures. In the Netherlands, the most common subjects of specialized police training are: basic and advanced training in crowd control, observation training, surveillance training, traffic accident investigation, driving skills training, basic training for arrest units and basic training for middle management of arrest units. In Belgium, the specialized training is organized for motorcycle police, dog handler, shooting instructor, and self-defense instructors, as well as in the areas of traffic, horses, dogs and criminal investigation. In Turkey, the most common subjects of specialized police training are intelligence, anti-smuggling, traffic, communication, computer networking system, crime scene

Table 5 - Structure of entrants to police forces (in terms of their previous education) and duration of the basic police training




                                             GERM-     AUST-    NOR-    NETHE-    BELGIUM    BELGIUM          TUR-    GREE-    SWITZE-    FINL-

                                             ANY       RIA      WAY     RLANDS    (Police)   (Gendermarie)    KEY     CE       RLAND      AND

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The proportion of candidates that 

enter the Police for the first time after 

completing their education at the 

following level:

Less than high school degree                 70%       60%       -       30%         -             -           -       -         70%       10%

High school degree                           30%       30%      55%      65%        94%           84%         96%     100%       20%       60%

Associate degree                              -         5%      25%       4%         5%            5%          2,7%    -         10%       25%

Higher professional education degree          -         5%      15%       -          1%            5%          -       -          -         5%

Bachelor's degree                             -         -        5%       -          -             5%          1,3%    -          -         -

Master's or doctoral degree                   -         -        -        5%         -             1%          -       -          -         -

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Duration of the basic police training    2,5 or 1,5    24        3    6, 16 or 48   10            12           9       5          1       (no

                                           years     months    years     months    months       months      months    seme-     year      answer)

                                                                                                                      sters

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                                       POLAND     HUNGARY      SLOVAK        CZECH        CROATIA       MACE-         SLOVE-

                                                                               REPUBLIC      REPUBLIC                   DOMIA         NIA

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------                                                                               

The proportion of candidates that enter the Police 

for the first time after completing their education 

at the following  level:

Less than high school degree                             -           -            -            10%           -            -             -

High school degree                                      90%         70%         100%           40%           -           60%          100%

Associate degree                                         -           -            -            40%           -           10%            -

Higher professional education degree                    10%         30%           -             4%           -            -             -

Bachelor's degree                                        -           -            -             -            -           30%            -

Master's or doctoral degree                              -           -            -             6%           -            -             -

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------                                                                               

Duration of the basic police training                    7           2            1            18         6 or 12        6+2          4 or 6

                                                      months       years        year         months        months       months        months

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------                                                                               

investigation, interrogation, as well as training for shooting instructors and bomb technicians.In Greece, the most common subjects of specialized police training are traffic and drug issues, police operations, self-defense and self-protection, car, motor and bike driving skills, relations between the Police and the community,and criminological methods and tactics. In Finland, specialized training covers issues of public order and safety, community policing, narcotics, issues of foreigners and immigrants, asylum, data analysis, conducting interviews and interrogations, issues of economic crime, technical issues, administration and management, and special laws and decrees. In Poland, specializedpolice training includes issues of crime prevention, traffic, forensic science, criminal investigation, crime intelligence, juvenile crimes, antiterrorist activities and management skills. In Hungary, the most common subjects of specialized police training are issues of criminal investigation, community policing, training for trainers, specialized dog training, specialized horse training, informatics, specialized driving training, public relations, traffic accidents investigation, and behavioral training. In the Slovak Republic, specialized training covers all tasks of the uniformed police, traffic police, criminal investigation, border and immigration police, canine service, mounted police, and mobile police. The most common subjects of specialized police training in Croatia are issues related to the work of traffic police, border police, criminal investigation, forensics, explosive handling and security, and management skills.

Although the amount of this specialized police training varies from country to country (from one day to four weeks), we can see that the content is not that much different. The most common themes in specialized police training are traffic issues, crime- and criminal investigation-related issues, public relation and community issues, informatics and data-related issues, etc.

Management training

One area within police training is management training, i.e., a training provided for higher ranking police officers who are in charge of supervising the work of other police officers. The structure and quantity of management training in some of the surveyed countries are shown in Table 7. There was no data available for Turkey, Greece, Switzerland, Norway, and Slovenia. As can be seen from Table 7, in three countries (Belgium-police, Poland, and Hungary) management training is performed exclusively in the training centers. In the Slovak Republic, management training is always a combination of training in the police training centers and on- the-job training, while in other countries (Germany, Austria, the Netherlands, Belgium- gendarmerie, Finland, the Czech Republic, Croatia, and Macedonia) some forms of management training take place only in a training center, some only on the job, and/or some are a combination of both. In six countries (Belgium-police, Poland, Hungary, the Slovak Republic, the Czech Republic, and Croatia), all of police management training is done "in-house," while in the others (Germany, Austria, the Netherlands, Belgium-gendarmerie, Finland, and Macedonia) some of management training is performed by the outside institutions. The proportion of external management training varies from five percent (in Germany and Macedonia) to thirty percent (in the Netherlands). The amount of management training also varies among the surveyed countries, ranging from 30 to 240 hours per year.

Participating in management training is not a prerequisite for promotion into management ranks in any of the surveyed countries. The only exceptions to this rule are countries in which management training is part of other forms of training which are prerequisites for such a promotion (Germany, Austria, Belgium, and Finland). The most


Table 6 - Structure and quantity of specialized training





                                              GERMANY    AUSTRIA     NORWAY   NETHER-    BELGIUM    BELGIUM         GREECE    SWITZER-    FINL-

                                                                              LANS       (Police)   (Gendarmarie)             LAND        AND

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------                                                                               

Structure of specialized police training: 

Training in a Training Center only              90%        60%         -        80%        100%         -              -         -          -

On-the-job training only                        10%         -          -        20%          -          -              -         -          -

A combination of both                            -         40%       100%        -           -        100%           100%      100%       100%

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------                                                                               

The amount of specialized training that         1-4        200         1        10          60         10           70-120   (no answer)   40

police officers typically receive per          weeks      hours       week     days        hours      days           hours                hours

year

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------                                                                               



                                               POLAND    HUMGARY    SLOVAK       CZECH        CROATIA     MACE-      SLOVENIA

                                                                    REPUBLIC     REPUBLIC                 DONIA

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Structure of specialized police training: 

Training in a Training Center only              100%        70%       90%          100%         100%        80%        100%

On-the-job training only                          -         30%       10%            -            -         20%          -

A combination of both                             -          -         -             -            -          -           -

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The amount of specialized training that     (no answer)     1-5       170      (no answer)   (no answer)    70        40-120

police officers typically receive per                       days     hours                                 hours       hours

year

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

common topics of police management training in the Netherlands are supervision of operations, team building, training for modular education, career development, financial management, problem-oriented policing, project management, and effective influence tactics. In Belgium(gendarmerie), such topics are coaching, leadership, negotiation, effective meeting conducting, listening and communication skills, delegation, and project and operation management. In Finland, the most common topics of police management training are strategic, operational, and tactical management, personnel management, resource planning, data processing and data security, police ethics, international matters, new police legislation, pedagogics, selection and training of personnel, community policing, and scientific methodology. Managing groups, motivating, interpersonal communication, working under stress, resolving conflict situations, decision-making, and an effective use of human resources, are the most common topics of police management training in Poland. In Hungary, such topics are personnel development and training, organization development, human resource strategy, organized crime, constitutional aspects of the Penal Code, protocol, relationship between Police Force and media, cooperation between local governments and police, and current tasks of public security service. Issues of management training in Croatia are scientific management, organizational structuring, tasks and skills of police officers of different ranks, police management approach, police management systems, organizational behavior, conflict management, negations, decision making, and management planning and control. In the Czech Republic, the most common topics in police management training are human resource management, crime control, organized crime, novelties in law (police law, criminal law, etc.), international cooperation, analytical skills, crime prevention, and management of police operations. In Germany, police management training includes topics such as crime control, traffic safety, management of police operations, the role of police in society, leadership, human resource development, novelties in law (constitutional law, police law, etc.), and international cooperation. In Austria, in addition to the topics listed for Germany, police management training includes personnel selection, security issues, and rhetoric.

Topics of management training are quite similar among the surveyed countries. The most common topics fall into three categories. The first and the most frequent category could be broadly defined as "topics in Organizational Behavior" (leadership, motivation, working with groups, team-building, stress management, conflict management, decision-making, etc.). The second most frequent category could be defined as "Human Resource Management" (recruiting and selection, career development, human resource development and training, effective use of human resources, etc.). The third most frequent category could be described as "Supervision and Management of Police Operations." It is surprising that among all the participating countries only one mentioned police ethics as a topic in their police management training, and very few listed international cooperation.

The number of institutions performing basic, specialized, and management police training in the surveyed countries are shown in Table 8. As can be seen from the table, the number of police training institutions in these countries varies from one to twenty-one. In Austria, all police training institutions operate within the Ministry of the Interior. In Norway and the Netherlands, all three different types of police training are performed within the same institution.

Table 7 - Structure and quantity of management training




                                GERM-    AUST-    NETHER-    BELGIUM    BELGIUM         FIN-      POL-      HUNG-     SLOVAK     CZECH     CROA-   MACE-

                                ANY      RIA      LANDS      (Police)   (Gendermarie)   LAND      AND       ARY       REP.       REP.      TIA     DONIA

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The structure of police 

management training:

Training in a Training Center    80%      90%      45%         100%         20%         50%       100%      100%         -         30%      80%     70%

only

On-the-job training only         15%       -        -            -          20%         20%         -         -          -         70%      20%     25%

A combination of both             -        -       25%           -          35%         20%         -         -        100%         -        -       -

Training at the outside (non-     5%      10%      30%           -          25%         10%         -         -          -          -        -       5%

police) institutions

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The amount of management          1       240      15           no         4-5          40         no        72         80         no        30      no

training that higher ranking    week      hours   days        answer       days        hours     answer     hours     hours      answer     hours  answer

officers typically receive per 

year

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Our data showed a great variety in the area of police education and training in the 17 surveyed countries. In assessing the situation in this domain, one cannot simply rely on the names of institutions. Terminology, common in the United States, does not apply to the surveyed countries. For example, the term "police academy" that clearly denotes a training institution in the United States has a different meaning in Europe. Therefore, other criteria have to be used to determine the real nature of various institutions and programs, such as durationand the structure of the program, participants, degree or certificate granted upon graduation, and external validity of such a degree. The present study used such criteria to analyze the existing systems of police education and training in the surveyed countries.Among 17 countries included in our analysis, there are 10 where high school level of police education can be obtained. In five countries, the students have an obligation to become employees of the Police as they enter the school. In some countries, the programs are more or less general in nature, with no or very few law and police related subjects, while in the others law, criminalistics, and police related subjects constitute a large part of their curricula. These programs take between one and four years to complete. In all except one country the high-school diploma is externally valid. Both male and female students are eligible to study at the police high schools in six countries, while in four countries enrollment is available to male students only. After graduating from the police high school, the graduates in some countries can start working as police officers immediately, fully performing the police work, in some of the countries graduates receive on-the-job training before they start to perform the police work independently, while in the others the graduates have to enroll in some form of police training before they start working as police officers.

Associate level of police education is attainable in five countries. To enroll in the associate level police education, the candidates from these five countries have to be the employees of the Police. The programs differ among countries, although there is less variance than in the case of high school level programs. In three of the countries, education obtained at this level is externally valid, in one of them this question is currently being regulated, while in one of them the associate level of police education is valid only inside the Police. After finishing their studies, the graduates in three countries can immediately start performing the police work, while in two countries the graduates first receive on-the-job training. In three countries the associate level of police education by itself guarantees a certain rank in the police hierarchy.

Higher professional police education is performed in 12 out of 17 surveyed countries. To enroll in the school that offers higher professional police education, the students in eight countries have to be employed by the Police. In all 12 countries, the higher professional police education degree obtained from these schools is externally valid. In terms of the content, the higher professional police education programs can be broadly divided into three groups: (1) those dominated by law; (2) those emphasizing police related subjects, law, criminalistics, and criminology, while at the same time lacking or even omitting police administration and management subjects; and (3) those with a balanced mixture of all subjects. After finishing their studies, the graduates in seven countries start working as police officers immediately, with no additional training. In four countries, the graduates first receive on-the-job training, while in

Table 8 - Number of police training institutions in the country




                                           GERM-      AUST-    NOR-    NETHERL-    BELGIUM    BELGIUM         TUR-   GREE-    SWITZER-    FINL-

                                           ANY        RIA      WAY     ANDS        (Police)   (Gendermarie)   KEY    CE       LAND        AND

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Number of police institutions in the 

country, specialized in police training:

Institutions for basic training             4          1        1         5            8            11        21       1       many        no 

                                                                                                                                         answer

Institutions for specialized training       4          1        1         3            8             1         0       1         1          1

Institutions for management training        4          1        1         1            8             1         0       0         -          1

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Table 8 - Number of police training institutions in the country (continued)




                                                 POLAND    HUNGARY      SLOVAK       CZECH      CROATIA       MACEDONIA       SLOVENIA

                                                                        REP.         REP. 

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Number of police institutions in the 

country, specialized in police training:

Institutions for basic training                   12          6            2           6            1              1               1

Institutions for specialized training              3          3            1           5            1              1               4

Institutions for management training               1          1            1           1            1              1               1

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

one country this depends on the graduates' previous work experience. The degree from these schools guarantees a certain rank in police hierarchy in seven countries. Nine countries perform bachelor's level police education. Additionally, in one country the candidates who graduate from the police college can pass the state examinations to obtain a bachelor's degree. Except in three countries, the candidates enrolling in the bachelor's level police education have to be employed by the Police. Although all the curricula contain a mixture of various disciplines, some programs emphasize criminalistics and criminology, some law, one program emphasizes police administration and management, while one program emphasizes more general subjects. Except in one country, all the degrees are externally valid. The degree from the schools that offer bachelor's level police education guarantees a certain rank in five countries. Additional training depends on previous police experience, in most cases the graduate receives on-the-job training.Master's level police education is attainable in five of the surveyed countries, and doctoral level police in four. In three countries, the postgraduate studies are organized by the institutions operated by the Police. In one country, the postgraduate study is organized at the educational institution which is not associated with the Police but offers the police postgraduate program. In one country, the postgraduate study is performed by the police institution in cooperation with the university. In three countries, the candidates who enroll in the postgraduate studies have to be employed by the Police. The master's and doctoral degrees are externally valid in all of the above mentioned countries. They do not guarantee a certain rank in the police hierarchy in any of these countries.

Duration of basic police training varies from four months to four years. While the majority of the surveyed countries does not accept candidates with less than a high school degree, there are six countries that admit candidates without a completed high school degree. Typical subjects and police tasks taught in the basic training are: law (traffic, penal, civil, penal procedure, criminal, criminal procedure), general legal and administrative knowledge, psychology, crime prevention, youth problems, drug related problems, informatics, criminalistics, crime scene investigation, patrolling, stopping vehicles, crime-related information gathering, witness interviewing, intervening in public disorders, and history of law enforcement. Typical skills taught in the basic training are: criminal evidence handling, traffic regulation, self-defense, swimming, shooting, report writing, first aid, communication, using computers, public relations, crowd control, using baton, handcuffs, gathering information, using right police procedure, documenting, using technical equipment, cooperation in group, decision-making, communication, administrative skills, foreign languages, and physical training.

The amount of specialized police training varies from country to country (from one day to four weeks), while the content is not that much different. The most common themes in specialized police training are traffic issues, crime- and criminal investigation-related issues, public relation and community issues, and informatics and data-related issues.

Police management training is done "in-house" in six countries, while in the others some of it is performed by the outside institutions. The proportion of external management training varies from five to thirty percent. The amount of management training also varies among the surveyed countries, ranging from 30 to 240 hours per year. Participating in management training is not a prerequisite for promotion into management ranks in any of the surveyed countries. The only exceptions to this rule are countries in which management training is part of other forms of training which are prerequisites for such a promotion. Topics of management training are quite similar among the surveyed countries. The most common topics fall into three categories: organizational behavior, human resource management, and management of police operations. Among all the participating countries only one mentioned police ethics as a topic in their police management training, and very few listed international cooperation.

The number of institutions performing basic, specialized, and management police training in the surveyed countries varies from one to twenty-one.

While this variety is certainly understandable in the light of different historical development of all the countries included in our study, and while it can be defended on the ground of specificity of each of these countries, the question remains whether such a variety is not an obstacle in terms of European integration and international cooperation. Integration processes in Europe have dictated an adaptation and uniformity of legislation and standards of various activities in each of the European countries. This is not only true for the members and affiliated members of the European Union but also for the countries that border both the European Union and its affiliated members. At the same time, the police organizations in all European countries-and broader-are joining forces in their battle against organized crime, terrorism, drug trafficking, violent crimes, etc. So, whether the issue is policing the European Union, policing other European countries outside the Union, cooperation among European countries, cooperation on the international level, or policing one's own neighborhood, it would be very arrogant, naive, and irresponsible to claim that one single country has all the right answers, all the knowledge, and all the experience necessary to succeed.

Therefore, not only we all have to open up to the knowledge and experience of others, we also have to agree upon some necessary common denominators in European police education and training. It is hard, if not impossible, to cooperate, if our educational backgrounds and training experience are so different. This idea is by no means new. Hebenton and Thomas (1995) describe two of such ideas:

"The move towards more European co-operation has inevitably brought with it a demand for more training and education to help ease the process. [] The idea has been put forward that a European police academy might be created to serve officers from various countries. One of the strongest advocates for this pan-European idea has been Dr Piet van Reenen, the former Director of the Netherlands Police Academy [] Given current differences in training and police philosophies, a simple coming together of curriculae or programmes would not be easy, and van Reenen sees his proposed European Police Institute as being only for senior officers with management responsibilities. Despite the difficulties: 'the fact that the borders within Europe are opening up is a sufficient and necessary reason to start a facility for the meeting and training of police management on a European level, no matter how different the structures and cultures of today are' (van Reenen 1992). The positive advantages of moving training onto a European scale are that it concentrates the level of expertise, gives a clear European perspective and is more efficient if it obviates the need for each country to promote its own in-house 'European course'. The Institute could be either a central physical establishment, a secretarial that could organize courses throughout Europe, or a mixture of the two, with funding coming from member states or the EC. Van Reenen is aware that countries are cautious of setting up a European Police Institute and notes that the TREVI group temporarily turned down the idea, but is in no doubt that it will 'eventually be realised' (van Reenen 1992; see also Benyon et al. 1993: ch. 7.3.5). Allied to the idea of a central European police academic institution is the British proposal for a European Police Council. Originally put forward by Roger Birch, Chief Constable of Sussex, as Chair of the ACPO International Affairs Advisory Committee, it was seen as another way to improve practical police co-operation and break down the isolation of individual nation forces (House of Commons 1990b: Vol.2, p. 20). The idea has been compared to the Customs Cooperation Council for Customs and Excise Officers from different countries to meet (House of Commons 1989a: para. 56). The Council was to differ from the idea of a central academic institution which had the potential to become yet another large and undefined super-agency with confused accountability (Bentham 1992), and it would also be open to officers of all ranks and not just managers (House of Commons 1990b: Vol.2, p. 107). ACPO had already had discussions with Interpol who liked the idea and were happy to act as 'neutral territory to further a way forward' (Bentham 1992). The Home Affairs Committee, however, were rather lukewarm in their reception to a Police Council, and thought Interpol might be a better means of achieving the same end (House of Commons 1990h: Vol. I, para. 116). It has also been suggested that it merely reflects the UK's decentralized system of policing and the need for a national voice (N. Walker l991: 41). This did not stop the idea being brought forward again in 1992 to the same Committee, but retitled a 'Police Programme for Europe' to avoid 'unacceptably constitutional overtones' posed by the earlier title (House of Commons l992: Vol.2, p. 96). " (p. 120-122)

We believe that the idea about a European Police Academy is premature at this time, especially since we advocate against limiting police cooperation within the borders of the European Union. If we expand the idea of police cooperation beyond the EU borders, it becomes obvious that one single institution could not handle training of police managers from so many different countries. Furthermore, both of the above mentioned ideas only relate to the issues of police training. Our analysis showed that, first, there is no clear demarcation between education and training for particular positions within the police hierarchies, and, second, police educational programs are instrumental in the formation of higher ranking police officers throughout Europe. Any solution in Europe that concentrates on training issues and neglects the issues of police education is doomed to fail.

Therefore, we recommend that two bodies be established within Europe. The first one to define standards of police education, and the second one to do the same in the area of police training. We imagine these to be professional bodies, comprised of representatives of various police and non-police organizations. We leave it to the further discussion to determine details of how these bodies should come into existence, which professional organizations should participate, etc. The point we are trying to make here is that solution, in our opinion, is not in establishing one single institution to educate and train all police forces in Europe, but in defining some common standards that all police training and educational institutions in Europe should follow. These standards should be promoted by means of accreditation, as a completely voluntary process. Those training and educational institutions within Europe that would like to prove to their constituents and students that they are an institution with internationally comparable program and criteria would apply for accreditation.

The area, however, where we believe that establishing some form of European-wide institutions is in place, is the domain of "training the trainers" and "educating the educators." We need at least three institutions in various parts of Europe, where European police training institutions could send their instructors to attain the common core of knowledge and skills, reflected in standards of police training in Europe. Additionally, we need at least three graduate schools in various parts of Europe, offering masters and doctoral degrees in criminal justice with a strong European and international orientation. Various police educational institutions would send their prospective assistants and young professors to obtain higher degrees at these graduate schools, which would eventually promote a common core of knowledge imparted at different police educational institutions throughout Europe.


Table of Contents | The Case for International Police Cooperation on Training Issues

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